Lyonpo (Mantri or Minister) Om pradhan and his “Bhutan, the Roar of Thunder Dragon”

(1) I, Hariprasad Adhikari, regard or feel that Om Pradhan’s role and position in Wangchuks court was like a role of “Amatya Raskyasha” under Nanda King’s court during the time of Chanakya, (Kautilya) or Bisnu Pupta of Pataliputra somewhere in 12th century. He (Amatya Rakshash), too, was aware that whatever Chanakya was doing that was for the promotion and welfare of empire and its people but Amatya was bound to keep accompany with the eroding notorious the Nanda King’s policy and being used by him supporting king’s wrong policy as Lyonpo Om Pradhan have been experiencing and facing in Bhutan.

Despite of that, he ultimately has brought his book “Bhutan the roar of thunder dragon” by recording almost events excluding king’s bad role in racial discrimination and slow ethnic cleansing in Bhutan.

So, if it was in my control, capacity, vicinity or approach, I would have had definitely recommended for renowned prize of the year 2012-13, even novel prize to Om Pradhan, on his book. Because, whatever issues relating to Southern Bhutan’s crises we have been advocating since 1950s specially from April 9th 1988 and King’s government of Bhutan was not accepting those notorious acts against us which Lyonpo Om Pradhan has nicely acknowledged in his book as sitting minister and top most favorite person of king though he seems compelled to say “Gunda” to the demonstrator and its organizer, in 1990. May be , he has chosen this strategy to keep his bosses happy because he is well aware that in the freedom struggle demonstrators can adopt any measure for self-protection like the then political party of Bhutan had adopted against martial low implemented by the king. In this regard we can take reference of , world famous American freedom struggle led by, George Washington, Nelson Mandela, Subhash Chandra Bosh, Gopal Krishna Gokhle in India and Bisweswar Prasad Kerala in Nepal who also had adopted more harder measures against their autocratic and apartheid oppositions compared with what Bhutan’s demonstrators did.

In spite of using this bad word, “Gunda” (gangsters) to the freedom fighters, I believe, he (Lyonpo Om) certainly has got consent or approval for writing of atrocities also occurred during forceful eviction of Bhutanese of Nepalis from their mother land which resulted a cause of making more than 100 thousand Bhutanese as stateless, regardless of their centuries old citizenship identities and properties provided by previous kings and law of citizenship (first codified laws) 1958. To revoke above law king’s government has brought, 1985 new citizenship act which is more discriminatory to those who are not from the king’s ethnicity and have different language and costume.

Lyonpo Om Pradhan has written some different stories about Dasho Tek Nath Rizal, Rongthong Kuenlay, Bhim Subba and his brother Pratap Subba, Ran Bahadur Basnet and Dasho Janga Bahadur Chhetri. Among the stories, some are cooked in Samteling Palace and some are orchestrated in Thashichhozdong to hoodwink the genuine suggestion and demand put forwarded by above person against government’s ethnic cleansing. In this regard government’s orchestration is only to divert the mind of persons who are critics on state sponsored racialism and despotism. In fact, even Lyonpo Om himself was used to keep away, apart or in dark many times and was not allowed to attend such cabinet meetings in which racial discriminatory measure were under taken and brought for approval. For example, Tek Nath had followed the established system and submitted a written appeal to the king regarding on going racial discriminatory governed by census exercise but in such meeting despite of being cabinet member Om Pradhan was not called to attend that meeting and in place of giving justice to Teknath he was punished and terminated from the post of royal advisory councilor by the king himself under the influence of so called unilateral cabinet meeting and its members. Above to this, the high court was order to take stern agreement from Rizal by restringing to not meet at a time more than 3 persons. In addition to this, later , Dasho Teknath was abducted from his self-exile place Bergamo Nepal and was kept 10 yearlong imprison who was found not guilty when he was release from jail then why was that long journey of incarceration , is not explained?

Likewise, as he (Lyonpo) suggested in his book, People of Gaylegphug Dungkhag were gathered to appeal to the king and they had submitted plea also for not to evict them, nevertheless the next day they (Bhutanese)were more brutally force to leave the country by district administration when fourth king had not ended his Gaylegphug residing or tour.

Another important issue which he raised in his book about asylum taking place , as he suggested that in place of taking in Nepal it would had better if the refugee would had chosen to India would have better impact on the issue, he said. As if, India was so kind toward Bhutanese refugees compare to golden age laying (through giving permit to undertake hydro power, trade and mineral to India) King Jigme Singe Wangchuk. This seems either he is making ploy or trying to camouflaging the fact because at the beginning all those measure were adopted even by involving myself to establishing the refugee camps in Dalle Aahal near Laila , Deosiri near Gaylegphug , Mude and Pat Gaun near Sarbhang, Phoolbari near Daifam. Not only this, we - myself, SB Subba, Tara Subedi and Narayan Timsina met with Hiteswar Saikia, chief minister of Assam, for this purpose. After some days of meeting with him all these camps were crack downed through Indian security forces with the collusion of Bhutan’s authority. And, the People taking shelter in these camps were dumped in trucks and thrown at Mechi River bank like the heaps and heaps of garbage thrown by the Indian authority.

First and foremost, one need to understand that Om pradhan was an extra ordinary juvenile pet from Nepali Boys at the eye of third king Jigme Dorjee Wangchuk who arranged special scholarship through India for his higher education. Later, responding reciprocal, Mr Pradhan joined the government and became one of the most useful and obedient person for the King Jigme Singe Wangchuk though he had appointed under Prince Namgyal Wangchuk’s ministry (king’s half paternal uncle’s ministry) probably at the end of 1960s. Prince Namgyal Wangchuk became the special representative of His majesty the third king when Bhutan was admitting as a 128 members of united nation organization. Before to UNO representation, his highness was on the chair of Paro Penelope’s post and Deputy Chief of army of Bhutan after brutal hanging until death of Chhyabda (then army chief) Namge Bahadur who was also a king’s relative and trustworthy. Latter, in 1970s, he (prince) controlled trade, industry and forest ministry for long time where Om Pradhan was appointed secretary of the ministry and deputy minister but at the beginning he used to wear white scarf (traditional general scarf while attending the government offices according to Drukpa costume) and not so fortune to get red scarf and “Patang”, kind of sword (recognition rank from kings to the very trust worthy person) as other special royalist used to get. Gradually, Om pradhan elevated as deputy minister and full pledged minister and took over the responsibility of trade, industry and forest ministry with orange color scarfs and Patang (rank showing scarf of the deputy and full minister). His boss, prince (Namgyal Wangchuk) transferred as head of home ministry by keeping subordinate Dago Stiring as his deputy minister under whom notorious cadastral survey and census enumeration of 1987-88 in south Bhutan was arranged and implemented. In this notorious census, it had made mandatory to have 1948’s tax paid receipt in the hand of every individual to be included in the Performa “B”. There were two Performa’ , “A” for Drukpa Bhutanese and “B” for Nepali Bhutanese to qualify as citizenship after revoking the previous act 1958 act by 1985 act. It is not known that the another relocation of Namgyal Wangchuk from home to agriculture was a calculative or mare co incidental event because when he became agriculture minister then the people of northern Bhutan were brought to settle in the land of Southern Bhutanese which were confiscated by the government after forceful eviction under martial law. This will be an interesting subject if someone research and evaluate the actual role of prince about the eviction of Nepalis Bhutanese from Bhutan. Otherwise, if he was not happy with government discriminatory actions he could have stop such happening hence his words were enough to respect by his nice king Jigme Singe Wangchuk, so why such heinous action had have not stopped by him?

Whatever conspiracy and plots were made against Nepalis Bhutanese , Lyonpo Om Pradhan does not seems, too , willing to write any things which make kings frown so he has chosen appreciative path . May be this was an idea of keeping him ever great full with the Wangchuks kings despite of being aware/victim of those sinful works from his bosses time and again. If not, he would have written many things against their discriminatory actions as an eyewitness of long present in the Wangchuk court. For instance, many time, he, his paternal family, their businesses and properties were at the targets of government’s whimsical action. Much time, in such cases Lyonpo was interrogated but always remains humble to his boss and does not say anything against king’s role and involvements in that action. In case of such circumstances arises, he skilfully tried them to divert toward the direction of some other departmental action by showing that king is always compassion and wise to all and especially with him. To get more guess in this context, it will be a good example in the book that when Lyonpo Om was return from china he did not ask any thing with the king during the short briefing time about the program of king’s trip to southern Bhutan after Dasho Tek Nath Rizal’s appeal against discriminatory census exercise.

By Leaving census and forceful episode here ,let us take another topic about silence ethnic cleansing in Bhutan , according to so called ethnic integration program conceived by third and fourth king through marring a non-southern Bhutanese wife/ husband by southern Bhutanese boy and girls was another remarkable subject which he had accepted and became the role model of kings by choosing a Sarchops wife (wives?) Aum Jigme Wangmo. Subsequently he happily kept the Drukpa Names of his Daughter Chitso, and two sons Wangel and Jingel probably relinquishing “Pradhan” from their last name which Lyonpo himself has been carrying as his father and forefather’s legacy directed since ages. More to this , Lyonpo Om’s mother was daughter of Brahmin “pariwar” (family) and his maternal uncle, aunt, grandmother were the progeny of Gautama rishi or saint which seem no more will exist in this clan, If, Om’s off springs do not prefer to carry out the last name Pradhan in their names. Also, Lyonpo’s kids are/will be the pioneer children of relinquishing father’s last name from Southern Bhutanese community under such program. Along with last name , they have sacrificed many things such as they changed their costume and became role model by wearing “Go” or Bakhu (knee or ankle long Drukpa garb ) , speaking high class and pure Dzonkha (a northern Bhutanese dialects) Sarchops and residing at Semtokha in Thimpu by leaving behind many things and properties in southern and eastern Bhutan.

Thus, above said circumstance force us to ponder on Lyonpo Om Pradhan’s good or bad role about Bhutan, southern Bhutan and Bhutnese specially Nepali Bhutanese for which he at least has not done any bad to any one, as of now as I know. In fact, as a person from southern Bhutan in various key places an almost lifelong sitting minister and a very dear personality to the three kings he has done so many remarkable tasks for the up liftmen of sovereignty of Bhutan from the yoke of colonization of 1865-1949 treaties executed by Wangchuk (Jigme Namgyal) Kings with India. Next to this, he was the pioneer leader from government to lead the delegation team to Sino-Bhutan border talk which definitely was an unforgettable contribution from him for Bhutan’s sovereignty. Also , he kept the history for southern Bhutanese by making able to be established a representative from Bhutan in the United nations organization, India along with so many representation with various countries in the glove with whom Bhutan has opened its diplomatic relations whether they were the result of nation’s ability or by the effort of Om pradhan himself. In the domestic policy also, he was involved mostly in the national assembly, his ministry and cabinet where he took part in all most matters and tried to take impartial line to accommodate all Bhutanese. When he show some discrimination against any community he skillfully worked on them with those stake holders and took such issue in the knowledge of king or help to make arrangement of order as possible on ongoing issues . On top of this, this time, he has brought his book “Bhutan The roar of thunder Dragon” by highlighting almost those issues which were instrumental for Nepalis settlements followed by racial discrimination and forceful eviction of genuine Bhutanese of Nepali community. More to this, he has brought the issues as a minister in limelight which may be references and guidelines for research and justice if the victims give continuity to seek justice from within Bhutan or from international institutions on the days and year to come. So, looking from these tunnel views and priorities we are bound to think and thank to him that whether he personally attended in any one’s agony or not , whether he came to help someone’s days todays hardship and provided job or Kidu ( gifts) to someone or not, if he has performed more greater and important character as mention just above on which he must be deserve to get some regard, respect and honor for such novel works .

On the other hand, Om Pradhan might have success to bring the things with the consent of same authority who were indulging to keep such things hidden in the past and were happy to condemn them as Jigme Y Thinle has categorically done many times and had put partial and mysterious viewpoints about the early arrival of Nepali Bhutanese in Bhutan before 19th century by saying that Nepalis had not even stepped in Bhutan before to Minjur Tenpa’s reign, the third Druk Desi (regent of Sabdung). Not only government and JYT, most of officers under Wangchuks rule and some native and foreign writers ( special guest of kings) never accepted that the word “ DRUKPA” is an offshoot of Drukpa Kayukpa religion which he has acknowledged by indicating that the world is related with Drukpa kayukpa sect of Ralung in Tibet as it descendant in Bhutan . Above to this, he ( Lyonpo Om ) has accepted that except dress and religion , people have different ethnicities even in the west, east and central regions by explaining the Kheng ethnicity by showing Rongthong Kuenle Dorjee’s name and where about who was pass away in exile fighting for democracy . All these facts, pull us to thing about Om Pradhan’s role in Bhutan because before these whatever facts he has acknowledged in his book they were the subject of hiding by the incumbent ministers and officers in the name of one nation one people and Bhutanization by following the king’s concept of Palden Drukpa, against which Lyonpo Om highlighted as following: 

(1) “The Indian and Tibetans, the two main neighbors of the Kingdome, have always played an important role in the lives of Bhutanese. Bengalis were used by the old government in Punakha to act as interpreters and clerk, especially in dealing with British India.

(2) Again, since early time, people from the plains were held captive and brought to work the field in Punakha and Wangdiphodrang as serfs.

(3) Now except from an occasional dark –complexioned and deep- set eyed person, this serf have merge in to the population of Paro and the Sha area, comprising Punakha and Wangdiphodrang”.

(4) “The Sarchops, especially from the Duksam area, had a special relationship with Bodos in Assam –from the district of Kamrup, Bongaigaon and Goalpara” (all above 4 quotes are from his book Bhutan the Roar of thunder Dragon page 128).

(5) “There is story that the batch of about 50 Nepalis families were brought to Bhutan in 1624 as artisan and craftsman after a visit by Zhabdrung Nawang Namgyal to the Gorkha principality ruled by Ram Shah). While Nepali artisans were definitely used in the construction that Zhabdrung undertook as shown in his “Namthar or Bansawali (in English like a chronological story of person concern), it has not been possible to verify from any original source of information about the visit of Zhabdrung to Nepal. The existence of villages like Bebuna in Thimpu and Wachu in Paro were Nepali artisan were brought in to provide expertise in art and architecture for which they were renowned in Nepal and the region , seems to give some credibility to this view . It is also a known fact that Zhabdrung’s major construction of the first Dzongs and some important monasteries in western Bhutan. These were the Chery Monastery in 1620, Semtokha Dzong in 1629, and Punakha Dzong in 1637. Tashi Chho Dzong in 1641 and Paro Dzong in 1646. Such massive constructions within about a 20 year timespan , and in the absence of motor roads mechanized means of construction , would not only require the mobilization of large labor force to cope with the sheer volume manual works, but skilled artisans and craftsmen to deal with desired intricate architecture and painting requirement. This becomes more glaring when we note that ever since the start of the modern development plans in 1961 that require a lot of constructions, Bhutan had to import labor, skilled and unskilled teachers, doctors, engineers, clerk and official carry out the many task require to implement and run development plan and program. Surprisingly most were from Nepalis or related communities of neighboring Kalingpong and Darjeeling ’’. (Quote numbers 1- 5 from pages 27-29).

Similarly, he has written following quotations by adding facts from his side:

(1) “People of Nepalis origin were initially encouraged to migrate to part of southern Bhutan foothills long before development plans were begun as settlers in a political context rather than as a labors or economic migrants” (Roar of Thunder page 133)

( 2) “ It is also provided the government with much needed cash tax base as oppose to the tax –in –kind derived from the northern region . Hence the objective of defending the southern border region from further British encroachment and creating the beginning of a modern tax base were achieved through this policy of encouraging the southern settlements”. (p133)

(3) “The only of way avoiding further territorial loss to a superior political and military might in the south was to accept British hegemony in the region by being as diplomatic as possible in dealings with officials, surrender as little as possible in terms of its land Area . One of the ways of doing this was to settle these territories with Bhutanese subjects. As stated earlier, since the population of northern region was not adequate or even unsuitable for settlement in these hot material regions, Bhutan resorted to bringing in Nepali settlers - obviously Indian settlers in these circumstances would not be acceptable as they would be British subjects”. (p 136)

(4) “The education department took the additional step of withdrawing the Nepali language course from the school in southern Bhutan. This action obviously resulted in political and ethnic overtone as such a deliberate move in any country or society would. At the same time, it made Bhutan easy prey for criticism from both distinct elements as well as outside human rights organization. The education department officials explain that the government wanted to give more emphasis to Dzongkha and English. Nepali would be an additional subjects and added burden on Lhostampa students in schools as compare to student from other part of the country. It was then emphasized that it would not be possible for the government to promote one regional language and ignore other like Sarchops, Bumthaps, Khenkha, and Brokpa. Nepali was put into the category of such a regional language. This explanation of by the education department is not adequate to convince all Lhostampa and critics from outside”.

“On the language front, the king came up with proposal to ease the complaints of the dissatisfied Lhotsampa on the language policy of the education department. He said that the government should support the existing Sanskrit Pathshalas (school) where Nepali could also be promoted”. However, this proposal of the king went largely unnoticed “. (P 143)

Even after the independent of India on August 15. 1947, the Bhutanese government may have been fearful of the compromising its sovereignty and of being unjustly included even as one of the princely state of India. However, the official of second hereditary king, Jigme Wangchuk (rule 1926-1952) led by Raja Sonam Tobge Dorjee, handled the issue with a good amount of tact. The Nepalis subject of southern Bhutan as well as Nepalis population of Darjeeling and Kalingpong areas always been known to be supportive of Bhutan’s sovereignty and more so, survival as separate political entity. (p 137)

The southern Bhutanese were agitated in 1989-1990 only when the census exercise and land cadastral surveys were begun from the latter part of the 1980s. This raised fears and doubts in the mind of this ethnic group that the objective was to evict them and deprived them from their landed properties now that the purpose of their original settlement had been served. (p 134)

“One of the principle facets Bhutanese integration was to encourage inter-marriage, but this was only in respect of Bhutanese national s of Nepali Nepalis origin. In the case of Indians and other nationality, inter marriage were frowned upon, and have known even prevented, as the Tongsa incident during the 1980s demonstrated”. (p135)

“Since the rule of the third hereditary king, his majesty jigme Dorjee Wangchuk, encouragement to inter marries incentive during that time was 10 thousand Ngultrum of Indian Rupees. King Jigme Singe Wangchuk doubled the amount of this state grant “. (p 136)

The king next worked on having a distinct National dress for the Lhostampa. The southern Bhutanese, at the same time, wore pants and shirts similar to that on the Indian side of Assam and Bengal, while more traditional among them wore the Nepali Daura Surwal. His majesty told them that their dress made them feel emotionally closer to Indians and outside Nepalis rather than with their own fellow men and women in the country. (142) “the surprise came when the district government authority began imposing the wearing of national dress even for elderly people and those working in the field and when moving around casually. Some even claim that the police barged inside the home to see if they in go and Kira. (157)

“Then came ill-conceived attempt to create the “green belt “in the south that would act as buffer with India and create a wild animal corridor between two countries. Anyone who drove along the border areas either on the Bhutanese or Indian side would have thought an idea as preposterous in view of the population , the villages and townships, agriculture , tea garden , and above all the humanitarian and political problems that would obviously result in the event such a scheme was implemented“. (p158)

“Again, to demand written proof of one’s having been in Bhutan since 1958 was through production of tiny pieces of hand field paper that had been issued some time decades ago to migrate villagers as house or tax receipts by officials who retain few or no records. These receipts were never mean to be retained as proof of citizenship or indicate a person’s date of arrival in Bhutan. If proper identity cards have been issued at that time, things would perhaps have been far easier but it was quite certain that Bhutanese official capacity at that time was very limited. On the other hand, it was also difficult for most of the population that was largely uneducated to produce these receipts after a quarter of a century or more – papers on which ink of the hand writing would have deteriorated even if somehow preserved. Many of these villagers live in semi –permanent house made of bamboo , timber and mud in hot and humid areas subjected to insect attract and natural calamity like floods, heavy rains, landslide , earth quake and fire . Pieces of papers tucked into various pieces in bamboo and wooden crevices for safe keeping in huts over generations would have little chance of survival in such condition”. (p 159)

If someone analyzed Om pradhan and his father Jhulendra Pradhan’s existence and works in the Wangchuks court, examiner will satisfy with their performances by finding them active and successfully established personality on the court of Wangchuk and Dorjee kings. They (Pradhan’s) were involved in different national building task to accompany to the Wangchuk and Dorjees kings since around eight decades by representing the Nepalis community inhabited in southern Bhutan. They obeyed the Wangchuks and Dorjees and performed the tasks according to nation’s urgent necessity so we can remember that the Nepalis settlement done by Commissioner Jhulendra pradhan proved border protecting and fencing work from east to west:- begins from Hastinapur block, Dalim block , Bakuli block , Jyangkhurung (Danabari) block , Lalai block, GaylegPhung block , Bhur block , Patabari block , Toribari block, Hiley block, Singee Block, Deorali block and Kalikhola block . In these blocks, Garjaman Gurung was not able to settle Nepali Bhutanese prior to Pradhan’s took over.

Similarly in Samrang block, Lyonpo Om was the chief architecture of settlement of those who were uprooted from industry affected areas such as from Pagli (now Gomtu cement plant). Unfortunately, Due to Bhutan’s ethnic cleansing program under 1985 citizenship law, discriminatory census enumeration 1987-90 and Bhutanization under one nation one people policy of King Jigme Singe Wangchuk those Nepalis Bhutanese from these places were evicted forcefully and their properties have been ransacked by government and given to new settlers who were brought from northern Bhutan . More to this, according to gradual process of elimination of entire Nepalis ethnicity and their historical traces in Bhutan not stopped to erase the old Nepalis names and existence. They are under process of getting changed rapidly in Dzonkha name and existence under the government strong sponsorship and monitoring. In the same ways, debate in Nepalis vernacular in the lower house and upper house in parliaments are abandoned which were existed from the beginning of stogdu (national assemblies in Bhutan). More dangerously, candidates for National assembly and parliament are mandatory to deliver lectures in Drukpa (Dzonkha) language otherwise they will disqualify their membership and candidature in the election according to king’s election commission’s rule. For this, son Pradhan, indirectly tried his best and make the environment conducive by which the rulers would realize the important of Nepali Bhutanese and their sacrifices by recording all those issues in Lyonpo’s book though achievement is still far away. Thus, may be the continuation of intention of making aware to the king about the past sacrifices of Nepalis Bhutanese he further kept his effort of writing the main sacrifices of Nepalis by pointing out the situation of ongoing land shrinking at southern border from India side is another example of Lyonpo’s indirect way of expression which self is a mirror to see the past and role of Lhostampas for protecting the southern border how it was remain safe. As well as he added that they (relatives of Lhotsampa even in Assam and Bengal) were the main supporters of establishing Wangchuks ’throne in Bhutan. For this, he clearly wrote that they were helpful to establishing friendly environment to maintain good relation with neighboring states of India such as with West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, (Nefa or North east frontier Agency) too. Above to this, he highlighted the part of creating and producing of marketable goods by Nepalese Bhutanese which was another bed rock for generating eternal source of cash revenue earning to sustain the nation. Getting above subjects in order and function , Pradhans had lionized the kings (Wangchuks and Dorjees) and invited foreign traders and made market centers within Bhutan for initiating the market economy by allowing to open weekly and daily sale purchase stalls and small scale manufacturing centers and cinema halls in SamdrupDzongkhar (Mela Bazar) Sarbhang (Sarpang ) Hatisar (Gaylegphug) Jai Gaon (Phunsoling ) Chamarchy ( Samchi ) and Bindu along with hydroelectric power stations specially at Bindu (Jal Dhaka), Chhukha and Tala. Definitely, they were very challenging task to Pradhans because kings of Bhutan were habituated to believing and listening eulogy and flattery from Sycophants who used to say that if the market economy and establishing of factory and power plants taken place then chances of forming trade unions are very high so king should cautious in such business in Bhutan before to approve them. In spite of these hostile and un friendly circumstances, both fathers and son Pradhans used their skill, experience and high knowledge to keep kings in their confident and success to get favor of rulers and put up even bitter truth to curve them in right direction and policy making for the welfare of country . Now this trend is seems to be ending after Om Pradhan because he is near to retiring age of 65 years and his offspring have not shown such interest and are not looking keen to forward coming the ways that keeps such trend continue further in Wangchuk court from southern Bhutan as Jhulendra Pradhan and Om Pradhan have done.

In this regard, other people from southern Bhutan also had got such opportunities like to Jhulendra and Om Pradhan but they do not resulted productive as Pradhans. To compare such opportunity with other, we can take the name of Mr Barun Gurung, Meghraj Gurung, Deo Kumar Gurung, Prahlad Gurung, N.B Chetri, Uttam Chetri, Pritiman Ghale, Nanadalal Rai and Thakur Sing Paudel. They also had got such chances along with to becoming sister in-law (Barun Gurung )of the king and ministers (Thakur sing and Nanadalal Rai), councilors (Pritiman Ghale and Prahlad Gurung ), Dasho Dzongdah (N. B Chetri ), Judges ( Dasho Deo Kumar Gurung , Dasho DN Katwal , Dasho JB Pradhan) (high court judge) in Wangchuk court as Pradhans had got. They (other) completed their tenure and sustained as yes men and pocketed good salary and privileges from exchequer, by showing their southern Bhutanese appearance only. More to this, Shiba Raj Gurung, Jash Raj Gurung (DC), Meghraj Gurung and his sister Chandrakala Gurung, principal of Samchi National institution of education, NIE even forgot their legacy of ancestors - Dal Chanda Gurung, Garjaman Gurung and D. B Gurung.

Later, Lok Bahadur Gurung (Zonal chief of Chirang) who was distance relative with above Gurungs , tried to be productive but his mysterious death in car accident during Samchi trip left task uncompleted initiated by him. Similarly, Janga Bahadur Chhetri ( Budathoki ) and Nanda Raj Gurung, both councilor of southern Bhutan , tried their best but they could not cross the conspiracy river against them flown between the Wangchuk courts and southern Bhutan as both father and son Pradhans were competently succeed to crossed that too. Whatever causes of success of Pradhans and failing of Gurungs and other, we need to respect their residences as the monument of the time. For this, every Bhutanese whether they belong from any region should come forward to research those historical elements alike “Neoly Kothi” which may be the sources of reference for Bhutan’s territory of the past which is equal to monument as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro of India which are now in Pakistan alike to Neoly Kothi of Bhutan which is in India after the loss of the border land by the last demarcation and 1949 treaty agreements.

I have been raising such issues alike to Neoly Kothi along with the Bhutan house in Kalebung which was of Dorjees’ resident and Sameru Kothi, the Baauna Dhoka Darwar (consisting of 52 doors palace) of Garjaman Gurung where form he was administering Garjaman State right from Tursha to Jaldhakka which now is in Samchi district including his worshipping place “Buke Dham”, local temple at Samchi. Lapsi Bote office if Chirang also has its history. In this regard I strongly wrote in my book “ethnic cleansing in Bhutan a stigma to 21st century” but Lyonpo Om has picked up only the subject relating to Neoly Kothi and his properties though he has printed the photos of former officers from Nepali community in southern belt as a administrators comprising post of commissioner, deputy commissioners (DC) and subdivisonal officers (SDO): such as Jhulendra pradhan (commissioner) B.K Thapa (SDO) G.P. Dukpa (SDO) J.B. Pradhan (SDO) T. T. Namchu (SDO) Nriparaj Gurung (SDO) Gaja Raj Gurung (SDO) I.K Thapa (SDO) K.D. Pradhan (SDO), Kam Chiring (forgot the post) Ash Bahadur Subba (DC), Dasho S Penjore (assistance and full commissioner) and Golinga (not known).

Unfortunately, in Bhutan the practice of giving credit only to the king is very dangerous to the history by shadowing the works done by other persons as above mentioned. In this context we can refer the example of Ugen Dorjee (Bhutan Agent), Raja Sonam Tobge Dorjee, Jigme Palden Dorjee, Gyam Dorjee, Duba Babu, Rinchhe Commissioner, Lyonpo Pema Wangchuk, Lyonpo Sange Penjor, Azi Tashi, Rani Chhuni Dorjee, Jigme Y. Thinley’s father and Jigme Y Thinle who had also played very significant role with Wangchuk kings to promote and elevate the Bhutan’s sovereignty from the grip of Indian empire along with to elevating Wangchuks rule. Otherwise, King of Wangchuk would have been fortified in Tongsa and Jyaker Dzong only. In the other hand, Bhutan’s situation was not much better due to the 1865 treaty with India. It was (still is?) not much more well good than former Sikkim, Nizam of Hyderabad, Sindhia Raj Gharana and Kashmir principalities which were dragged by Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel and Shreemati Indira Gandhi whose leadership merged them into Indian union in 1947-51 and 1971-72 respectively. To protect Bhutan from this storm Dorjees along with other persons as mentioned above have plaid very significant role. Likewise, to establish at least partial institutional reform in the country in the field of civil and political right Nepali Bhutanese, Sarchops and Kheng and some prominent Gnalung such as Gup Khilla have played very significant role along with Dhanbir Rai (Dr Bhampa Rai’s grandfather), DB Gurung , Devi Bhakta Lamitare , Jigme Palden Dorjee Tek Nath Rizal , RK Budathoki , Ran Bahadur Basnet , Bhim Subba , Rakesh Chhetri , Rongthong Kinley, Thinle Penjore , Rinjin Dorjee , one of the Ramjam, (The written papers inscribed his name was left in camp so I could not able to write his honorable name here is disgraceful situation to me ) arrested in 1997-98 in Samdrup Dzonkhar . In addition, Dr DNS Dhakal, Ratan Gajmer, Jogen Gajmer, Bhakti Bhandari, Deo Data Sharma, Viswanath Chetri, Sushil Pokhrel, Dr Bhampa Rai, Suk Bahadur Subba, Hari Bangale and Gomtsen karma, Chhiku Dukpa and Pashang Zangmo have done unforgettable sacrifice to bring some reform in Bhutan, though it is not enough to satisfy. In the same fashion, on the field of administration Rinji Gyalchen , Dasho Lok Bahadur, Dasho Chhewang Penjore , Dasho Pashang Tobge , Dasho karma (babu Karchung’s son ) Dasho Karma Sherpa , CT Dorjee (SDO) , Tashi Wangdi, (SDO) Dasho Angay, major Wangdi are worthy to remember . In addition, Lopen Nado, Sange Dorjee (former national assembly secretary), deputy director Sange Of registration department and Sherab Thai and Lyonpo lam Penjore and Paljor J Dorjee (Penjola), Lyonpo Karma Letho, Lyonpo Dorjee Wangdi and Gungling Lamdorjee tried their best to kept them in the middle instead of taking extreme role as was assigned to them and by not annoying Wangchuk Kings too by their jobs assigned in Southern Bhutan and in Thimpu.

Equal to not giving credit to the person who offered their karma (duty) to establish, promote and protect the nation as done by the several incarnations of Shabdrung indeed they were killed again and again as Queen Azi Dorjee Wangmo Wangchuk (Azi DWW) wrote in her book, is her under, “In November 1931, during the reign of second king of Bhutan, Zhabdrung Jigme Dorjee was assassinated at Talo Dzong, asphyxiated in the death of night a silk scarfed down his throats. He was just twenty six year old (A portrait of Bhutan by Azi DDW page 30). Similarly, so called death of Garjaman Gurung, Prime Minister Jigme Palden Dorjee, Chabda Namge Bahadur, Lyonpo Lam Penjore, Lyonpo Sange Penjore and Dasho Lok Bahadur Gurung are in the list of investigation. Next list of such death of sequences begins from the death of Mane Chhetri and Harka Bahadur Sapkota and 100s other peoples from south and eastern Bhutan who were arrested and made disappeared in jails 1990-2008. Not only this, many people are thrown alive in various rivers from all over the nation like Mahasur Chhetri of Chirang. Similarly, many have kill by gun in day light like Gomchen karma of Monger. More to this, Mr Mane chhetri was found hanged in NIE Samchi complex during highest team’s visit from Thimpu led by chief justice and chairmen of Royal advisory council along with various judges and full bench of councilors. Also, officer sponsored bullet shot in lamidara took the lives of Deo Narayan Adhikari , Chudamani Khatiwoda, Pathak (at Rukse Bhir) along with other ( total 8 death at lamidara bazar ) freedom fighters in Chirang , lamidara and Monger.

In the sequences of the doing good works by Pradhan if we not remember Jhulendra Pradhan’s cruelty against southern Bhutanese demonstrators in Sarbhang during 1950s which will be an extreme sin and was a big blur to his personality though Om Pradhan is clean and has done Prayaschitya or remorse (regret indirectly) by recording many things occurred in southern Bhutan during forceful eviction to the genuine citizen of Bhutan in his book.

In addition to this, I personally thank Lyonpo Om about the quotation of Major Chukwuma of Nigeria which indicates indirect way of expressing example to any ruler ( including Bhutanese kings ) , as he quoted, “our enemies are the political profiteers, the swindlers , the men in the high and low places that seek bribes and demand 10% of ;those that seeks to keep the country divided permanently so that they can remain in office as ministers and VIPs Of waste; the tribalists, the nepotism ; those that made the country look big –for- nothing before international circle ; those that have corrupted our society and put the Nigerian political calendar back by their words and deeds ”(Book’s page 216 page of Om’s book). In Bhutan also, the same things are not happening? Can king put this in his mind and can allow really independent inquiries? The question goes to the current palace because we still believe to establish constitutional monarchy where king will be a symbol of nation by keeping him under constitution and democratic institution and by adhering real human right and democratic values.

Last but not least, with the Lyonpo Om Pradhan, we have to give thanks to Azi Dorjee Wangmo Wangchuk who brought following paragraphs related to dominant of Nepali Bhutanese in Bhutan since century: (1) “Every district in the country has a Dzong (until at the end of 1970s[1] there was no Dzong in southern Bhutan) - an enormous fortress - which houses the official monk body and several temples. And every village has a temple, around which the life of the community revolves Hinduism, the other major religion in Bhutan, is followed by people of Nepalis origin belong to different castes such as chhetri , Rai , Tamang and Gurung , who are collectively known as the Lhotsampas . They are settled mainly in Southern Bhutan. “(Introduction page 2 Azi Dorjee Wangmo Wangchuk, Raziddw). (2) “Dasain, also in autumn, is the big festival of Lhostampas, with their joyous drumming and dancing, and lavish feasts, with everyone dressed in new clothes at their temples.” (Raziddw page No. 4). (3) The unique “cultural tradition which give Bhutan its distinct identity are preserved thru laws such as those that require all Bhutanese to wear the national costume in public (this also keep alive our wonderful weaving tradition), and make it mandatory for all building private and public, to follow the design and rules of our superb traditional architectures (and this certainly does not rule out having every modern convenience inside). The traditional arts and crafts are encouraged, with the highest standards maintained thru regular patronage of the government and the clergy and thru large project for restoration and renovation of Dzong and monasteries”. (Raziddw page No. 19). (4) “The exquisite scent of the orange blossom fields the air as I began walking the next morning, for Chirang (Tsirang) is dotted with orange orchards on both sides of the valley. The land here is fertile, far less steep and rocky than in Dagana and the footpath are wide and well maintained. We passed thru the idyllic village of Khorsane Gaon and Phentechu, stopping for tea at home of Gurung family – an impeccably clean two storied mud house – and ending the day at Dhanmaya’s house, where the village put on an impromptu show. Both Dagana and Chirang have a large population of Lhotsampas who migrated to these parts from their original home in Nepal and the Darjeeling hill of India. They are hardworking and skilled cultivators, whose fields and orange groves are beautifully tented. The inventing of Dhanmaya’s house was a delightful interlude, where we sat in her garden led by the gentle light of the lantern, discover the incomparable taste of orange straight off the trees, and enjoyed the lilting song and rhythmic dances of Lhotsampas” (Raziddw, Page No. 193)

The quotation is very interesting from the Raziddw where she nicely expressed southern Bhutan’s feature and activities of Nepali Bhutanese for nation building, I offer salute her.

[1] The word within bracket are not her explanation because I kept this to clear the issue that there was no Dzong in southern Bhutan and was called office.