Is king only the nation
builder? Or there are other equal contributors like International agencies,
citizens of the country and marginalized evicted Nepali Bhutanese 04/02/2014
Is king only the nation builder? Or there are other equal contributors like International agencies, citizens of the country and marginalized evicted Nepali Bhutanese 04/02/2014
As is observed, without the contribution of sons and daughters of general public, persons enrolled In external and internal security force, persons deputed in maintenance of law and order, guiding a visionary leaders, without the help of dedicated and creative scholars, honest expert in various fields, selfless reformer and national and international investors, no nation can evolve, develop or sustain, or flourish and protected as Bhutan has evolved on the world map with an identity of tiny Himalayan country consisting with multiple race and groups of people for such evolution in between china and India - at large on the global horizon. In addition to them, to grow any country need basic infrastructures and resources such as all physical, natural, and human and materials.
Ironically, instead of recognizing and honoring for these contributing factors and sacrifice provided by the sons and daughter of general public in the journey of nation building, rulers / agents of king are showing only their absolute part - by not mentioning the share provided by above said contributors who used to drizzled their perspiration and blood in journey of nation building. In fact, the sons and daughters of the general public had sacrificed even their lives whether it was a fighting for Bhutan’s unification or developing task. The blood and sweat of them was sprinkled for country construction but ungrateful Wangchuk kings of Bhutan and his agents did not felt shame to own such credits alone by saying that so and so achievement was possible due to so and so king’s effort and wish only.
For example, we can pick up the topic of so called democratic (which is yet to true reform) process began in Bhutan in several phases. The present day “unique democracy” is due to public’s sacrifices of 3 decades (1 decade in 1950 and 2 decades in 1990) with long struggles and unimaginable hardship during freedom fighting. For this, they embraced deadly jail journeys, uncertain lives in exile and they (activists) lose hard earned movable and immovable proprieties because of king’s adverse policy that was against the reform. Actually against pro reformist, the king used military and put them in jail along with extra judicial killings of fighters. Kings snatched their properties and distributed them to his pets who were helping him to do heinous acts.
King tried his best to eliminate the struggle but when he show inability to quash such move then he accepted to write ever first written citizenship act in 1958-59 followed by lifting of serfdom system. Thereafter, he constituted national assembly in 1950-53 by eye washing the people and by keeping his hand at upper position. Making everything in his favor he agreed to establish the Royal advisory council (present day’s upper house) in 1965 and lifted ban on Bhutan state congress party in 1968 which was struggling since 1948-1968 form inside and exile.
Similarly, in the field of country’s physical development, king only is not an absolute share holder. In this context, if country does not remember Ugen Wangchuk, Ugen Dorjee (the Bhutan agent) Prime minister jigme Palden and his sister Aji Tashi Dorjee then we do injustice to the modern history of Bhutan. Actually, the “Dorjees” were the person who diagnosed Bhutan’s lack of basic developmental infrastructures and searched for appropriate treatments. They by connecting Bhutan in global perspective by entering into joint venture with India on various projects as India had security interest. They initiated to move forward in such a way that Bhutan could get great portion from proposed joint ventures.
As a beginning, Dorjees prioritized in education and road networking with constructing of primary schools and basis dispensaries for medical services in 1962. They requested India for providing sufficient budget to construct road from Phunsoling - Thimpu. Thereafter, they built road from confluence - Paro and Haa, and Paro to connect Chinese border. To arrive at another touching points from Indian boundary to Chinese border: lungenphu - Punakha, Punakha Tongsa road were added. In the second five year plan, GaylegPhung - Bumthang high way was constructed along with their connecting point to Sharbhang - Chirang, Sunkosh Dagana and Wagle- Tar to ward Wangdi road. After this, to reach at eastern corner of Bhutan which could connect the disputed India- china border (to ward NEFA north east front agency or present day Arunachal and Meghalaya) via Samdrup Dzongkher, Tashi Gang - Mongar and Pepagachhe road were made by giving top priority to them.
To centralized the effective administration suitable to new tie up with India and Bhutan royal secretariat of Bhutan Tashi Chho Dzong, the high court building and telecommunication department at Thimpu were erected. India even had not disturbed the budget for above construction during the great financial crises in India ran from 1965 -1972 due to three wars of it with China and Pakistan.
Along with the road networking other developmental works, monetary system was introduce and established with Indian help. This made easy to transacting financial deals smoothly along by replacing existing barter system in Bhutan. To run the institution, India sets Bank of Bhutan with collaboration with State bank of India (SBI) which is the powerful partner of joint undertaking. SBI indirectly reserved all authorities of controlling and guiding the BoB. For this, headquarter was set at Phunsoling with branches at Thimpu, Gaylegphung and Samdrup Dzonkhar in the beginning and expanded later in almost every District. The branches were authorized to Import Indian currencies from Indian bank of Hasimara, Bongaigaun and Gauhati to meet currency flow and its demands. Prior to this arrangement, Bhutan doesn’t had paper currency except the coin of 50 paisa (chetrum) which were minted some in thousands numbers during the time in king Jigme Dorjee’ s throne ascending occasion.
After admission in UN in 1971, Bhutan printed ngultrum (Bhutanese currency) and kept it at par of the value of rupee. At the beginning, it was thought that the equal value of Ngultrum with Indian rupee was a big victory from Bhutan side. But, this victory converted as curse when Bhutan found obligated to receive Indian currency payment instead of US dollar in international trading along with the payment from her bills of hydroelectricity exported to India. Not only in electric’s bills but also other payments such as of cardamom and orange sale to Indian market were made in rupee only. In the other hand, Bhutan’s currencies were not acceptable in Indian market except few border towns. But, if Indian currencies are not available in Bhutan, purchasing and selling of even an essential commodity comes under jeopardize to the Bhutanese. Current example of this was the Indian currency crises in Bhutan during 2013 which yet to be ended even after appointing Stiring Tobge as prime minister in place of Jigme Y Thinley. In actuality, this crisis was made a big political weapon by the king’s agents and government of India to fix Bhutanese government of Jigme Y Thinle’s (JYT) government which was overthrown under the ploy of rupees crises in 2nd general election. In reality, GYT’s team was the party which had won clearly by two third majority of vote received from general public in the first round of election where public was directly participated to vote.
Likewise, The Government of India, continuing her powerful influence through King of Bhutan in kingdom’s all most all activities because he (King) is very much trust worthy to it and comfortable to deal for Indian interest and its territorial sensitizes. Since 1865 or from the time of Jigme Namgyal, (the grand grandfather of Jigme singe Wangchuk) The then Druk Deshi of Bhutan, all the kings are getting special dealing and privy parse annually started from Rs fifty thousand on those days to huge amount of Today. After the commencement of budgeting system since in 1962, it has changed the mode of receiving payment modality by making the system very much dependable bridle to control the policy and rule makers of Himalayan nation. In this regard the king proved as great player to fulfill all demands such as of stationing Indian army forces in Bhutan permanently, making their head quarter at Lungtenphu and Haa targeting to getting early information from northern border with China.
In the diplomatic field of Bhutan, India keep good control thus despite of having several dozens of diplomatic relations with foreign nations, except India and Bangladesh, no other nation are allow to station in Bhutanese territory by opening their diplomatic embassies due to understanding between India and King. Above to this , he (King) is bound to honor the orders and carry out the whip from India to vote in international front according to India’s desire. He (king) is maintaining great fullness by obeying the order of not visiting any nation (except in the occasions of multi-nation alliance gatherings) which India does not want. Or, we can say king of Bhutan is not allowed to visit any country without Delhi’s approval like a chief minister of its state of Indian------ territory. Sadly, no kings of Bhutan attended the UN general assembly to address it`s general assembly (when puppet prime ministerial system was not there) since country’s membership of four decades.
After getting entrance in the UN, we see some improvement in country’s financial situation and its diplomatic relation as Bhutan now is receiving several helps in the name of poorest country.
Among these helping agencies, European Union, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, SAARC and Bimstek with other several independent countries like Canada, Australia and Kuwait are proving financial aid. In the same footing, people of Bhutan from their inner heart contributing lot to develop their beloved country and it has been growing since its inception according to periodical situations and needs. They volunteered (worked without pay) labor works freely for patrolling border, carrying of materials such as cement, still bars, corrugated steel sheet, bricks from the road head to remotest construction areas where construction are going on. They collected locally available sand, stone boulders, lumbers. And, they do load and unload of those materials which needed to bring for sawing mills and sawing side. They undertook, unskilled labor works such as of helping carpentry and walling for buildings of schools, at the site of basic health unit, suspension bridges, and safe drinking water supply tanks and in irrigation channels scheduled to be constructed in their respective villages or districts. By this contribution from Bhutanese, it make surplus around 50% extra amounts from the allotted estimated budget of the international funding. Through this surplus amount, another project could be made for another place which gave boost to rapid development of nation by constructing double infrastructures in one budget due to free contribution of labor works.
Accurately I am not aware but I can guess about the standard of estimation of the budgetary amount for the international funding in which they may base on statistics of related nation to find the cost of proposed projects. Otherwise, how they could get estimation to release such fund? How they analyses of particular need in which they are going to funding? May be, king’s government of Bhutan might have taken this advantage of procedure and submitted the false data for the purpose to receive the large amount from donors and had projected more than one million population of the country in 1968-71 which was updated to 1.2 million sometime in 1970-80 and further to 1.4 million in 1990.
It may be the case that the projected data was accurate and government of Bhutan had evicted the people on its whims. Huge populations were evicted in 1950s, 1974 and 1990-92 because anti people activities of government and annual census were conducted since 1964 till 1990-91.
In 1991, the data suddenly reduced when king Jigme Singe Wangchuk had evicted more than 100 thousands people of Nepali origin by snatching their citizenships and ancestral movable and immovable properties forced them to go exile. Due to which the king unilaterally made more than 80 thousand non-nationals from the same ethnicity that had been staying in Bhutan since centuries and were obeying country’s law. After accomplishing above reduction, the king declared around 0.6 million population of the nation without giving valid reliable reason of such decrease. Since then, neither this dramatic depopulation of Bhutan has got any rational answer nor has conducted any impartial inquiry for finding the hidden truth of such dramatic and racial discriminatory brutality.
In this context, In fact, UN and concern agencies were the rays of hope of finding the fair fact with satisfactory answer but this was not carried out by the prestigious and honorable organization, the UN. Instead, king Jigme Singe Wangchuk was rewarded by making indirectly an ideal or role model of world of inventing slogan of “Gross National Happiness” (actually in Bhutan there is great unhappiness of racialism, poor and wealthy along with novel and low grade of classism) and his slogan has been adopted for UN celebration worldwide. Above to this, the racist government was awarded by several assistants and being rescue from asking the reason of such mass eviction and suppression.
Japan, like UN and its subordinate agencies, was the oldest friend of Bhutan. It had sent its envoy Keiji Nisoka as a guest of Prime Minister Jigme Palden Dorjee in 1962, in Bhutan house kalingpung, who latter arrived in kingdom in 1964 and established an agriculture farm at Bondy, Paro. He worked to help to Japan Oversees Technical Corporation Agency’s project. Then, he extended another project in Zemgang Integrated Area development project (at Pang Pang Near Gaylegphung) and suggested to remodel the Bhutan’s traditional agriculture system with using new technology by introducing farm mechanization and developed seeds, seedling for orchard. Side by side, he introduce horticulture program along with teaching for protected harvesting and storage followed by marketing of them. Now, this project have changed (after Dasho Nishoka’s demise in 1992) activities and got new name JICA by extending its horizon to construct the rural roads with a local network. It expanded telecommunication, mini hydro power and human resource developmental task along with the work on decentralization of projects of local government. It elevated Bhutan’s broad casting system by equipping it with modern accessories with technology.
Similar to japan, Switzerland stepped its foot to support Bhutan’s rural infrastructure by initiating in bee keeping, forestry, health, education, rural enterprises and environment and established her good influence on Bhutan kings and Bhutanese people.
Accordingly, Asian Development Bank also have extended its hand largely by entering in the field of energy, transport, information on communication technology, water supply and other municipal infrastructure and services. Under this program, Phunsoling, Thimpu and Gaylegphug got large urban water supply projects for drinking water followed by small towns.
After ADB, European Union (EU) which is known to have good control on NATO (Non Atlantic treaty) nations and effective cooperation with other donors nations of UN System. EU is an influencing partner of Bhutan and has good diplomatic effect on nation’s politics and government. It started to take interest in addressing decentralization of administration and shown curiosity to involve in long awaited people demand of democratic reform by helping to establish suitable institutional infrastructures. It provided fund to build new parliament houses, Supreme Court, high court and rural court buildings in districts and sub districts. According to its commitment on an external cooperation program EU deputed volunteers in different department to carry out their initial policies in the beginning. After that, looking at the demand of democracy and human right raised from south and east Bhutan, EU changed her working modality by replacing volunteers and by visiting teams of parliamentarians and ambassadors to Bhutan by majority nation of EU. After 1990, it re altered it system of working and made partnership on the field of millennium goal, good governance and constitutional monarchy by incorporating following 8 points:
- To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- To achieve universal primary education,
- To promote gender equality and empowering women,
- To reduce child mortality rates,
- To improved maternal health,
- To combat HIV/aids, malaria and other disease,
- To ensure environmental sustainability and
- To develop a global partnership for development.
Under good governance, EU and partner organization of UN system encourage Bhutan to codify ever first written constitution with an initiations of rule of law, people participation, transparency, accountability, effectiveness, delivery of the services and equity. But, king’s government of Bhutan made these generosities to hoodwink the demand of real democracy and tried to make them mockery by enlarging king’s yoke to the parliamentarian and both houses of parliaments. King brought more pro king person, Stiring Tobge, for Prime Minister Ship. He made opposition party as puppet along with Supreme Court. The founding leader of present opposition party Jigme Y Thinle who was very much experience, famous nationally and internationally was made political handicap by forcing him to confining in a corner of one house, after using him 43 years as king’s very much trusted person. He is the second person becoming victimization like this after Paljore J Dorjee , the chief judge and his brother Tobge Dorjee .
In spite of understanding the tactics for strengthening despotism by the king, EU encouraged other democracy related works to keep continue and emphasis to correct the data record of census which was deliberately made wrong to show the king’s ethnic group as larger among the four major group in the country followed by several sub groups.
Looking of overseas (European’s) interest in Bhutan, India also reinforced its hand more strongly in exploring hydroelectric power since 1974. For this, it provided 60 % loan and 40 % grant along with several hidden help to king, his family and his agents to approving the projects potential in different rivers, began from Chhuka and so on. Under this framework of loan and grant, government of India blueprinted each and every modality of projects starting from tunnel digging to power generation stages.
Upon the completion chukka project, intellectuals in Bhutan have started analyzing and calculating the loss and profit in Bhutan’s share from such projects. They, found gross loss on Bhutan’s side in the long run, so suggested the king that Bhutan should not agree to open all new power plants in India’s modality until it would not be able to make arrangement of own capital, human resources and experts to be able to prepare detail project report (DPR) and capacity of finding pros and cons of propose new power plants. They also, suggested that environmental situation of surrounding projects need to be calculated very carefully and properly. Obviously, this was not so much palatable to hydro power hungry India who wanted to grab the opportunity of getting cheap electricity potential in Bhutanese rivers as soon as possible by any means. So, Indian became active to influence the king to making him agree on their demand of exploring hydro power in Bhutan very soon.
Looking at India’s emphasis, king of Bhutan also tied up the deal of enforcing racial discriminatory policy against Nepali Bhutanese, which was clandestinely and carefully envisaged in third king’s time and was kept pending due to agitation of Nepali Bhutanese in fifties, Indo-china war 1962, Jigme Palden Dorjee’s assassination in 1964, and early death of third king, in 1971 at the age of 43 only. This pending agenda got accelerated to impose (King Jigme Singe’s time) because Rajiv Gandhi, then prime minister of India, came to be close friend and might have agreed to not interfere at least in the internal matter of Bhutan as far as king of Bhutan protects India’s long waited program of exploring hydropower. After getting protected by Rajiv Gandhi, Bhutanese king started forcefully to depopulate Bhutanese Nepali because they consisted largest group (43-47 percent) in the country though it was officially projected in the range of 15 % - 25 % -35%.
Actually, southern zone of Bhutan was absolutely Nepali domiciled zone with a thick population. After this zone, eastern zone is the second largest and western zone consist third largest population. In the south zone, until early 1970s, from the inception of Bhutan, no single Drukpa (non Nepali Bhutanese) was domiciled except around 100 houses in Chirang Dada and few houses in Tendu Sipsu. Nepali Bhutanese were doing well and progressing rapidly due to their hard working attitude and paying sufficient cash taxes and free labor to government work. They (Nepali) made this malaria infected zone as a fertile most zone by cultivating different crops in the country. Which now started to looks like a paradise to those envy eyes who were working within king coterie in Thimpu. Therefore, they started to hatch conspiracy for snatching the lucrative zone from Nepali Bhutanese and concocted several pretext and accusations against Bhutanese Nepalis.
To make success this conspiracy, at the beginning, they spread wrong information that people of Nepali Bhutanese are illegal migrants who entered silently from porous border. They (coterie members) started to make back ground to implementing some anti Nepali Bhutanese policy in the name of detecting non Bhutanese or illegal immigrants. So, they collect the land tax receipt from innocent villagers which were only record of prove with them since immemorial. After gathering all these records of proving residence in Bhutan the officers started to do different harassments by asking to provide individual written records which was hard to show because at that time country itself was not able to keep and issue such things hence such technology and men power were not developed for the system of keeping written enrolment accurate by providing required facilities other than the tax receipt in the name of family head and the record of name of family members in “ DHADDA ” (men, animals, orchard counting record for annual taxation and free labor in Mandal’s, southern chief and Bhutan house in kalingpong office) prior to 1975. After collecting these land tax receipt from the innocent villagers they (officers) began to ask for more proves from illiterate individuals. Side by side, they (officers) started threatening them and tactic of spreading rumor that Nepali Bhutanese are disloyal to the king along with country and have loyalty with Gorkhaland movement in Darjeeling and chief minister of Sikkim.
Their intention of making such conspiracy and spreading such rumors was related with greed in business of southern corridor with India, highly developed golden color paddy fields, lusty and wonderful orange gardens, beautiful areca nut orchards with tall trees, heart touching cardamom plantations with developed dry land of southern zone. This setting was possible due to incessant sweat and blood of Nepali Bhutanese.
To grab these in free, they persuaded to restrict land sale purchase in the beginning by saying that existing land occupation system of “Dhuri” (based with four boundary demarcation and registration of each plots began from inception) has become redundant and old so government wants to bring and implement new system. Until then or further order or until new system to be setup and implement to replace the old Dhuri (which was on vogue since Bhutan’s commencement) the land transaction made restricted, (only in southern Bhutan) since 1969-1981.
Between these time, the third king Jigme Dorjee Wangchuk, home minister Tamji jagar, finance minister Chhogyal, forest minister Namgyal Wangchuk and some power full other royal family members started to distribute ten thousands of government land to Drukpa families ranging from 5 acre to 25 acre in free of cost to those who wish to come down in southern Bhutan for permanent settlement from the east, west and central Bhutan. Thereafter, government undertook to revoke and replace the existing land act 1959 by reintroducing new land act of 1980-81 which was targeted to limit 25 acre land for one family who live in one roof and cook food together in one kitchen. If, such family have larger plot (land) according to old Dhuri system (in the past it was legal if you have paid tax either Rupees 21, 14, and 11) which was legal then. Such so called excess land started to convert as government land by replacing old system began since 1900 AD.
Under another ploy, government again restricted land sale purchase and started plot table survey to replacing the recently done chain survey immediately and began so-called table survey or cadastral survey in 1985-1892 within a 7 years span after previous survey of chain. Through this new survey, again, legally owned land within 25 acre of limit according to chain survey under new land act 1981, also declared illegal and snatched from Nepali Bhutanese to distribute to Drukpa in 1990-97. Adding fuel and provoking more to Nepali community, they brought dress code and made compulsory to wear Go and Kira (Drukpa dress) in southern tropical zone by replacing traditional Nepali dresses. Also, under Diglam namza they made Dzonkha compulsory in office work which was strange to Nepali Bhutanese from the inception of Bhutan.
Indian agencies were watching this tension and up and down in Bhutan very keenly and waiting an opportune time to reach more closely with the king of Bhutan to manipulate him to take the suitable action to India’s favor for which Rajiv Gandhi initiated step personally. As a consolidated trust building approach, he sent his son Rahul and daughter Priyanka in Bhutan for so called special protection and made very very important persons (VVIPS) of King of Bhutan with an arrangement of their staying in their for months. The reason of sending them in Himalayan country was told or shown the threat to Gandhi family in India posed through Khalisthani agitators who were stirring a movement for creating khalistan (or State).
Relating to this, the followers of separate state had already assassinated shreemati Indira Gandhi, the then prime minister of India. And, her family members predicted to be under threat. About this, the rumor was that they wanted to take the revenge of golden temple operation ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi where Jarnelsing Vindarwale, leader of Damdami Taksal was killed in operation blue star which was taken place, in 3-8 June 1984.
Staying of Rahul and Priyanka’ in Bhutan became the boon to both the friends (Prime minister Rajiv and King Jigme Singe) and both of them took full advantage of friendship in which India focused to explore more hydro projects in Bhutan under its suitable condition. In the same fashion, King Jigme Singe centered to get full protection of his throne by ensuring guarantee of noninterference in enforcing full eviction of Bhutanese Nepali from their motherland, Southern Bhutan, in 1985-92.
Continuing Rajiv’s path, PV Nara Singha Rao, successor of Gandhi, visited Bhutan at the peak of ethnic cleansing in 1992 and made memorandum of understanding (MOU) with king Jigme Singe Wangchuk for various hydroelectric power projects which are still under current and in progressing stages. According to understanding of two friends, king of Bhutan is fully protected even after implementing ethnic cleansing as per calculated design to eliminate each and every Nepali and their whereabouts from Bhutan, in long course, which is still wait and watch stage to accelerate again. Along with this, King’s dictatorial rule nicely protected under disguise of so - called unique democracy and its constitution jointly made by government of India and King of Bhutan.
Bhutanese monarch and government of India are following “give and take” formula in which India is getting privileges of exploring almost all projects of hydropower started from Chhuka, Tala 1, and Tala 2, Punasanchhu, Kurichhu, Mangdichhu, Kholongchhu, Wangchhu, Chamkharchhu and Bunakha. For them, entire fund has been provided by India in the name of grant and loan to Bhutan. In the other hand king of Bhutan is fully protected even after continuing racial discrimination and ethnic cleansing and cultural elimination of Nepalis Bhutanese.
Similarly, almost total road of Bhutan (except Sarbhang-Dagana and Sunkosh –Wangdi with few other small roads) have been constructed by India, since 1962. Likewise, almost major construction of buildings, bridges and departmental offices right from Tashi Chho Dzong to propose another new Gaylegphung Dzong at Umlig (Lalai) are in pipeline with full support from Indian Government.
Glancing at above examples and trying to get suitable answer from them, since 1972-2014 and by analyzing the claim of king of possessing all credit for so and so great works done in Bhutan by king or his kith and kin has found false because if above factors were not contributed or taken places then king would have done nothing other than confining him within the boundary of palace and his family. In fact, these achievements were gain by joint efforts of people of Bhutan, jigme Palden Dorjee, India’s needs and overseas interest of making their presence in Bhutan. Under such circumstances Bhutan got help to admit it in UN for which India was bound to sponsor with the intention to make Bhutan as strategic frontier to China from defense perspective. India had lost many things with China, in 1962 war.
Similarly, with the joint role played by People of Bhutan, King Jigme Singe Wangchuk and Om Pradhan and Lampenjore, the country till date has ambassadorial offices of only India and Bangladesh despite having diplomatic relations with several countries.
Another big achievement of joint role of people of Bhutan and King Jigme Singe, Om Pradhan and Jigme Y Tinley have gave the opportunity of keeping continue bi lateral talk with northern neighbor, China. Both neighbors have made some understanding in the subject of settlement border dispute in north though tangible benefits in Bhutan side yet to be seen because it has already surrendered the crown of mount Chhumulari and kulakangri to china and map of Bhutan looks like a beheaded or truncated skeleton .
What so ever, development of Bhutan was possible due to international funds which were coming from multiple ways and are helpful for making a small water reserve tank to small irrigation canal, small school toilet in community schools and health centers, telecommunication network of country, to university establishment and constructing supreme courts or big power plant’s tunnels.
Summering on above details, since many decades , I am trying to find king’s absolute contributions but not getting any satisfactory answer as he himself and his stooges are claiming.
In fact, Bhutan is now earning very nicely through various project and revenue. Where are these going? Where are those dollars collected from tourism in hard currency, rupees’ and Ngultrum gone ? Where are the levied in even all essential commodities, employments charge, duty in liquor, revenue return and sale proceed of hydroelectric power export and import with India are going? Above to this, royal Bhutan army, police and body guard of kings are not getting budget from India’s defense accounts?