cleansing and grabbing of land owned by Nepali Bhutanese was an
embryo of third king Jigme Dorjee Wangchuk, implemented by King Jigme Singe Wangchuk and fostered by Fifth King Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk
Before to start writing this true story I was force to use some unwanted words such as Drukpa villages or Drukpa from north etcetera is a compulsion of situation to explain the realities of story how it converted from Nepali Bhutanese villages to Drukpa Bhutanese villages. For this I beg pardon from the brothers and sisters of this community who belong from. Also, I want to ensure that I believe in pluralism and real democracy and respect malty culture for forever.
Master plan of graving land owned by Nepali Bhutanese ( the son of soil ) and eliminating them from their native place southern Bhutan was made during the third king’s time but it being Implemented ruthlessly only during Jigme Singe’s time when situation became conducive to do so nationally internationally . In the interval of that, the third king agreed to make citizenship act 1958 , held periodic elections of national assembly along with the repatriation of DB Gurung and his party ( Bhutan state Congress ) associates from exile in 1968 . These seems only a strategy to sustain fragile kingship and gain more grip in the administration which was actually in the hand of Dorjees as an agent of Bhutan, Deva jimpen (chamberlain) and Raja ( vassal ) of Southern Bhutan. Also, this family was forerunner of reform and modernization and was able to win the heart of most of the Bhutanese since the citizenship act 1958 and ending of serfdom system which was initiated to promulgate by Prime Minister Jigme Palden Dorjee through third King Jigme Dorjee Wangchuk .
To look the glimpses of third king’s plan and the policies embryo in the womb of his reign it is necessary to connect the first address to the nation deliberated by king jigme Singe Wangchuk ( forth king) when he was ascending in the throne in 1972. In his this address, the new king had promised that he will do nothing other than following the path of his father and implement the policies as ditto as he wanted to do in his time . As a first step of fulfilling his promise with his father as said in first address to the nation by forth king , he ended the Dhuri System (Land ownership holding arrangement existed in southern Bhutan since its inception ) without bringing agreeable substitute or solution . Thereafter , he remodeled the marriage act 1958 by bringing new act 1977, followed by land act 1980-81 to replace the previous 1959 land law under “Trimsung Chhenpo” ( the constitution ) .
To understand all these gamut of the third king and forth king’s networking we need to look jointly in the events taken place after the assassination of Palden Dorjee ( last Dorjee ruler ) in 1964 and sequences of things and policies after that.
The third king sponsored to construct a palace to his consort, yanki , at Gaylegphung (Hatisar). This town is situated around two kilometers inside from Indian border and is a largest possession of plain area in Bhutan. Here, he (king) deputed his trusted person for service of Yanki’s function and her security as well as to fast-tracked the grabbing process of region according to master plan . She ( yanki) and other king’s men stretched their hands in other southern Bhutanese towns by getting kasho ( providing free of coast of material’s or land or post) for settlement in area from other parts as well as the king’s consort and other relatives constructed buildings in at Phunsoling ( Jaya Gaun ) .Yanki constructed another palace at Surey by expanding her hand along with the properties and lands to her assistances most of them were king’s trust worthy and ex-military persons . Also, king’s government sponsored to royal relatives for setting up forest base industry and businesses in southern Bhutanese towns by providing incentive grand, free interest loan and free raw materials from forest, minerals and quotas from Indian industries granted to Bhutan. For such, we can high light the name of Druk show mill (open by king’s half-sister, (Chhoky) at Gaylegphung which got large forest area in Gaylegphung and surrounding for timber supply, without appropriate royalties . Like this, Galchen Drupa opened furniture house which was made the sole supplies of furniture in government offices of the country. Also , Deky Polethyne ( king’s sister’s factory ) got raw materials from Indian quotas for making pipes and accessories with a authority of supplying pipes in the projects of UNICF funded schemes for safe drinking water in Bhutan by opening a factory in Gaylegphung and Phunsoling . Dc Kuenley ( ex-Deputy commissioner and brother of finance minister Chhogyal ) got a unlimited quota or agency of importing scooters and auto parts by opening a stores called Druk “Stonkhang” in Gaylegpung , Samdrup Dzonkhar and Phunsoling . By this , he used to earn, 5-10 thousand commission in one scooter selling in India because it was chipper than existing Indian market due to quota and less tax to Bhutan as well as they were less demanded by Bhutanese due to road position of hill area . Similarly , kings’ men got authorization to keep Marwari ( inborn business community in India )for managing and running their business but the grass root general Bhutanese were not so fortunate to have such privileges in opening and learning commercial business in southern towns . In this context we can pick the name of Mr G.S Bhura who was managing director of Tashi Commercial Corporation Empire. Tashi’s owner was Ugen Dorjee related to third king as brother in-law. This Business Empire spreads in all over Bhutan and has got several agencies and quota for pin to plain from Indian factories and overseas.
Thereafter, third king’s government deputed Dzongkha teachers (all from Ngalung community) in every primary school along with several in middle and high schools in southern Bhutan by targeting to eliminating the existing Nepali language from region which was predominant from the dawn of southern Bhutan. The role of these Dzonkha teachers was suspected that they have got additional duty to gathering information about Nepali Bhutanese and their lifestyle, tradition along with teaching of so call Dzonkha in the schools. These teachers used to go regularly to meet Dzogdah , police head and Dungpa and were treated very reliable entity by the high ranking visitors from government in southern Bhutan . Actually , at that time, there was no single book in so called Dzonkha language, so they made teaching materials from choke ( classical Tibetan Language ) and Sumtak ( Chhoke Gramar ) followed by compulsory 45 minute long prayer of famous : “OMBAJAGURU PEMA SIDHI HUNG”, of Mahayana Buddhism. In such situation, despite of scoring high and distinctive numbers in other subjects such as English, science and math the passing level was determined by this Dzongkha which does not even owned a teaching and reading literature and materials even todays is not a wonder ?.
Also, third king’s government distributed tens of thousands of land, ranging from 5-25 acre, in southern Bhutan to those Drukpa who willing to dwell there permanently, despite of having huge landed properties occupation in northern Bhutan or other places they got free land southern Bhutan . As an example of such event we can see 10 acreages land of OKo Stiring near Gaylegphung town to ward Sarbhang high way. This expedition becomes fruitful to depute some ex uniformed persons spread in the rural villages after Dzongkha teachers and deputing Drukpa officers in the administrative system of southern Bhutan all over first time in the history of Bhutan.
Giving continuation in graving process, the government allotted commercial plots prioritizing to Drukpa clan to those who own several plots in other commercial towns in the country too. For example, the “Drukshongkhang had its government allotted properties in all border town and Nimachongkhang in Phunsoling and Thimpu and Tashi in everywhere along with thousands other plots are the vivid example of getting such commercial plots to spread Drukpa only.
. Next to all above, government started to dismantle the old administrative system began from 1900 AD. As of its first target, the Garjaman state and his office com resident at Sameru Samchi came in direct hitting in the list. Then, Bhutan house (Dorjees’ resident com office) converted an office of the assistant director of education for students studding in India, especially in Darjeeling and Kaling Pong . Thereafter, Samchi and Neoly commissioners’ offices merged under Sarbhang commissioner followed by the offices of deputy commissioner under each commissioners. Within a couple of years this also got abolish and the last “lhostam Chichhap” or commissioner ( southern Bhutan chief or commissioner ) become foreign secretary by putting southern Bhutan under direct preview of the king in the home ministry , though new Dzongdah system for southern districts came only in 1974 . As per this Dzongkhag system , Chewang Penjore became the first Phunsoling Dzongdah by opening new office at Phunsoling with a capacity of administering Phunsoling sub Division ( Dungkhag ),Samchi Sub Division ,Dorokha sub division , Chegmari Subdivision and Sipso sub Division . Similarly, Dasho Angay (one of the army officer and confidant of crown prince Jigme Singe Wangchuk) became the first Gaylegphug Dzongdah with a territory of administration Gayleg Phung Sub Division, Kali Khola sub division and Sarbhang sub Division. Dasho karma , (one of the son of Babu karchug who was involve in one of the incarnated Sabdung’s assassination) became the Dzongdah of Samdrup Dzonkhar with a authority of head of the Samdrup Dzonkhar , Bhang Tar , and Difam . After some months of above, Chirang got Nar Bahadur Chhetri (N.B. Chhetri) as its first Dzongdah with a territory of administration Chirang Sub Division, Daga Pela sub division and Lamidara. Till then Dagana was not counted in southern Bhutan.
In the chain of change , in between the abolishing of old system and taking place of new , right from Samchi to Chirang some of the Deputy commissioners got retire one by one after another among whom D.C Jash Raj Gurung , D. C Ash Bahadur Suba , T. T. Namchu and D C Yonten who were serving region .
As per the different plan for graving southern Bhutan and eliminating the mark of Bhutanese Nepalese, the king of Bhutan adopted malty prongs strategies. At first, he chosen double approach and show democratic reform from exterior face but in interior face he gear up racism and divide and rule . In the initial , he declared his own vote in the Bhutanese parliament by fixing three against votes out of 150 casted in the parliament ( Tsogdu ) as projected in late 1960s . Thereafter, he allowed repatriation of dissidents, D. B Gurung and his party associate from exile who were in India for 1948-68. Next to this, few Nepalese faces who were fully loyal to the despotism admitted in the lower administration. Sid by side, he ( king ) open the migration route big and broad to go other nation and lifted the existing 15% outgoing tax aiming to Nepali population ousting out . Plus, monarch started prompt ownership transfer of properties if any Nepali Bhutanese desire to leave Bhutan for other country . Contradicting with this, selling and purchasing or name transferring process between Nepali Bhutanese, residing in side ) made very tough and lengthy . In the other hand, if some Drukpa buy land or immovable properties from Nepali in southern Bhutan then the transfer process made quick in priority basis by naming it special case. In the other , in between Nepali Bhutanese to Nepali Bhutanese the same transaction made very wearisome as , mention here under :. At beginning , the sailing and purchasing made compulsory to done at Mandal’s ( village ) office with a enquiries of either there is any claim of partners or of heirs of proposed property to sale .Thereafter , neighbors of the land ( whose land comes close touched to the four boundary of that land ) were given 1-6 months’ time for declaring no claim or no dispute within the planned property in case of selling or name transferring . After completing this at Mandal’s level, the sale deed was forwarded to concerned Ramjam or Dungpa office (sub administrative district officer).This office, deliberately holds the deed delay by conducting several direct or indirect inquiries about the ownership transferring and person concerns of salers or buyers . After his/her satisfaction, he/she need to recommend it to district court for further investigation and legalizations. Again, court conduct several enquiries about any dispute or any illegal occupation on concern land. After his gratification, the Judges of court used to send the deed to the home ministry at Tashi Chho Dzong for examine all the process at district and village level are whether in order or not .There after it goes to finance ministry to make name change or ownership transfer in the central land recording system followed by registration process at district court again. All this actions are proves of delaying and doing clear screening thus there is no question of any illegal occupation and they are the vivid evidence of government permeation to settle and legalize everything in southern Bhutan according to existing rule and regulation. So , we strongly condemned the blame made by king’s government that people of Nepali origin has been silently entered from 700 kilometer long border and settled in the Bhutan as illegal immigrants is baseless and base on prejudices against Neepali Bhutanese like a “ kam saryo Bhado afal tero thando” or like a use and through of stuff . Also it is a proof of ungratefulness of the government toward Bhutanese Nepalis who protected this troublesome border in past when no Drukpa community wanted to stay even a moment at such dangerous region due to malaria , furious animal threat and border robbery along with several other calamity consequences .
Following above policies set by his father, as he ( fourth king) stated in his first address to the nation he accelerated quietly the expeditions of southern Bhutan grabbing process and brought 241 houses of non Nepalis( Drukpa ) population to settle in Chisapani ( Sersong ) Narbuling (Swamitar )Tashiphu ( Kinrnetar ) under Danabari block in Gaylegphung as pilot project which was his first beginning and the place where settlement made was community land of Nepali Bhutanese for grazing cattle , cash crops ,collecting dead stuff for organic fertilizer and fire wood etcetera .They, (settlers) got 5-9 acre of free land according to their sizes of family and the house for their dwelling was constructed by government and provided free of coast material and full cash aids to construct it . Also, all the taxes relating to occupation of properties were exempted for 5-9 years. Above to this , every houses got cash adds for purchasing bullock and wages for teachers who could teach them cultivation different crops in this zone ( hot area), which was strange to new settlers .
King Jigme singe Wangchuk also undertook Nepali Bhutanese landless settlement issue in his hand which was the dominant issues in the National assembly since decade back. For this, he sets a team to investigate the “Sukumbasi” ( Land less) household in southern Bhutan .In the team , there were councilors Daso Chewang Penjore, Dasho Hotey , Dasho Lamma Sanga and Dasho Janga Bahadur Chhetri along with a Dzongdag Dasho Angey and undersecretary Khandu Wangchuk ( this Khandu was Jigme singe’s close associate since Ugen academic Paro to 2008) . They got a Working periphery of distinguishing the real Sukumbasi or landless from Southern Bhutan and visited whole area and finalized the list of around 3500 house hold genuine for rehabilitation but this list was again got scrutinize by the king’s command through two judges ( district Thimpon ) Dasho Pasang Tobge and Rupnarayan ( RN ) Dhital . They reduced name list drastically and submitted reshaped list comprising only around 1050 house hold from the previous 3500 house hold who were declare eligible to rehabilitation and hundreds of them were real sukumbasi. The same was again given to agriculture and forest department to find out the vacant lands within the related blocks ( Geog ) where from the landless were generated and scrutinized as sukumbasi . Thereafter, Dzongdah of concern districts prepared Patta or Satham (land registration and acreage occupation paper) in the name of individual according to their family sizes, such as, bellow five person, below nine person and below fifteen person. Dzongdahs recommended tree acreage to comprising five person , five acreage to nine person and nine acre to fifteen person. After completing these procedure the list was submitted to King Jigme Singe Wangchuk for final approval. He awarded these pattas (without distinguishing the recorded land) to those land less households on the occasion of national day celebration at Gaylegphung on December 17/1978 but contrary to northern Bhutanese these southerner Sukumbasis did not get anything except Land’s empty “Pattas” Or “Satham” without land and other aids as northerners got while rehabilitating in the same region and situation by the same king’s scrutiny and so called justice.
Whether someone agree or not , all above action from the king connotes his strong promise and determination to fulfill his father’s half-done works or dream of eliminating Nepalis from southern Bhutan and bringing Drukpa in this region by any means from north was to be completed . Also , it indicates the vow given to his father through his first address to nation along with the contentment of promise to those hard core group who allowed him to ascend on the throne at the age of 16 and half years by ignoring all the limit of completing at list 21 years for a throne heir .
In above ways , after getting coronation at Tashi Chho Dzong and national day celebration in Gaylegphung , he began elimination process more strongly but very carefully and said that the Nepali in Lhostam (southern Bhutan) are not from Nepal and Darjeling, so they are the “Palden Drukpa” of Bhutan but not elaborated the phrase in quotation’s real intention .
Naively, we, so called educated Bhutanese and innocent common southern Bhutanese do not understand the hidden warning under so called “Palden Drukpa” and not excavated deeply its inner political meaning, so appreciated him as benevolence and reformist king by saying that he recognize us as true Bhutanese and become rejoice time and again with it despite of getting treatment of second class dwellers or stepsons /daughters in our own mother land to whom we promoted from malaria prone area to best environment to live in the world . Intensifying his project he sent his home minister Tamji jagar and finance minister Chhogyal to visit all village headquarters in southern Bhutan for investigating the living condition of border dwelling Nepalis Bhutanese . Obviously, it was in poor condition due to animal threat and destruction , border robbery and other several tropical climatic situation along with the lack of infrastructure especially power supply, transportation, drinking water and irrigation and other apparatus and opportunities of earning which could make standard of living better . In such tragedies, ignoring the share of government for improving situation the government made politicize and said that minister could not find any permanent dwelling since old days or found dwelling area like a Nepali villages without any distinction as Bhutanese with Indian side dwellers .
With a accelerate series of making Nepalis Bhutanese eliminating polices , the old provision through which any child born anywhere from Bhutanese father was eligible to get Bhutanese citizenship but the new law 1977 denied this opportunity under King Jigme Singe . Also, the provision of getting citizenship after residing at least 10 years in Bhutan changed for the provision of applying only (not for getting citizen ), even after residing 15- 20 years by 1977 .likewise, any foreign women married to a Bhutanese boy spontaneously was eligible to get citizenship according to 1958 which got revoked by 1977. Furthermore, the government does not stop here and brought more racial discriminatory laws against Nepalis Bhutanese so it introduce citizenship law of 1985. As per new law for the naturalization , the related child of Bhutanese needed to have citizenship of their father and mother ( both ) and they must be proficient to speak Dzongdahto then only child can get can appear in the naturalization .
After this, King Jigme Singe Wangchuk began compressing through land holding and it occupation. He revoked the provision of Un-limited occupation of land by introducing the limit of maximum 25 acres for one family who reside in the same house and cook food for all together . In the other hand, his government began faulty measurement of land, through which, Instead of surveying each and every piece of occupied plot the deputed surveyors’ in charges allowed carrying out an approximation in survey. To accomplish this, the surveyor stood at high erected place of proposed land supposed to be measure and recorded acreage without computing it properly, based on eye survey. Later, this became extremely problematic and complain was raised in the parliament in 1980-81. Responding on this difficulties the king jigme Singe Wangchuk ordered that if the land is within the limit of twenty five acres and have the registration containing four boundary according to previous laws holding system then such owner need to pay only the taxes of left over period between chain survey and cadastral survey . But, when new system was implemented entire left over land despite of being within the boundary and registration was declared illegal occupation and told it got seized.
Let us discuss again about finance and home minister’s visit in southern Bhutan and their mission of reporting what they might have reported? . They might have reported that entire southern Bhutan looks like a Nepali or Indian village because of cultural similarity and the structure of houses construction , congregation places of ritual , funeral ceremonies and other social services , what they seen in the visit which was new to any Drukpa official who was not stationed in southern Bhutan in the past and had not studied community related behaviors . More to this , they might have perceived that the system of welcoming of any guest is completely difference than from northern Bhutan as during the whole trip they got warm welcome in Nepali costume at every stoppage and gathering where they gone . They show blaring and playing of SAHANAI, (double reed wooden musical instrument) “ Narsingha” TURAHI Nagara (DRUM) with other ceremonial musical instruments according to Nepalis costume . Even they show the Varnasram vyabastha (quadruple arrangement of society according to Hindu philosophy) within the social stratum of these hamlets. Also, keeping of eating places distinct and typical which was existed in the southern Bhutanese folk houses .It might have helped them to support their old thinking and saying that this zone is a place of “ZAGAR” ( it means India or Indian or hindu Nepali ). They used this ( Zagar ) nick name to address us when they express hating words as “ZAGAR JYANDE” .
Actually, one time Dearing now loathing Nepali population to the kings in Bhutan was a largest group before to eviction of Lhostampas in 1988-92. Prior to that , it was consisted around 43-47%, because in the past there was need of managing 700 km long border and was necessary to win centuries old civil war between north and central or Paro and Trongsha, so government had inducted this community through it agents in various time . Above to this, establishing of kingship for northern Bhutanese was an anti-religious notion against existing Dharma raja system (spiritual kingship or Sabdung system who used to take incarnations time and again) in Bhutan . Also, in those days, it was strong believe that there should be at least ten lakhs (ten hundred thousand) population for getting recognition of nation or state to any country. In such situation , need full population was not possible unless the rulers of Bhutan decide to induct Nepalis people ( who used to be loyal the king system) as done by Ugen Wangchuk ( Tongshar penlop ) by ordering his agent Ugen Dorjeee in Kalingpong to fulfil the gap of population and the aim of protecting Bhutan as well of becoming king by him . This idea got faded after 1971, when Bhutan got membership in the UNO where they show small nations like Switzerland also have membership in the organization with a guaranty of equality and sovereignty of their nation equal to other member countries despite of being very small . Furthermore, they (agents of king) also show one machine can work more than thousands of labors or men power in hour thus the extremist for Drukpa chauvinism activated themselves in evict the Nepalis from Bhutan .
As a first step to implementing this thought, Drukpa culture was made instrumental silently by declaring it compulsory to have houses in so called Bhutanese design. As a result , centuries old house making system of Nepalis Bhutanese ordered to be change by following the government supplied Drukpa design in which despite of having RCC roof it should also have slanting roof above to it. Under this design, face of lintel above at the window and doors ordered to make as in northern Bhutan by adding “Bukhep” (bricks or wooden blocks focused toward front) in existing structures too in the municipality area of southern Bhutan in the beginning. After this, turn came for changing of look of idol in the Hindu temples by replacing the king Jigme singe supplied model of idle ( supply was done in 1988-89) which was carried by King Jigme singe Wangchuk during his visit to region , then . More to this, wearing “Go” (Drukpa men wearing garb) , and “Kira” women wearing Drukpa wrap ) made mandatory . This decision got unpopularity because in the first hand it is against the costume of southern Bhutanese. In the second, southern Bhutan is very much warm place (in the summer its temperature frequently reached up to 50 degree Celsius) and wearing a thick (double linen cloth) “Go” was not within the human tolerant where air conditioning facility was only story of heaven . Adding more, Dzonkha language made compulsory and Nepali language was banded in schools and offices .
Next after above, the government started funding to construct the Gumpas ( Buddhist Temple ) in almost every Nepalis villages in the southern districts , sub-districts and as much as possible as in every villages headquarters . In these “Gompas” (kind of Buddhist temple under Mahayana Buddhist sect) a team of lamas ( Drukpa monks) deputed to reside . Thereafter, frequent visits of Je Khempos, (king appointed Drukpa head monk of Bhutan) became the routine work in this zone with an aim of conversion or influence to Hindu in Drukpa Kagyupa Buddhist. More to this, government agents tried to divide Bhutanese Nepalese in Aryan and Mongol saying that Mongols are actually not Hindu.
After this, zonal administrative system brought for splitting the southern Bhutan and it population with an aim of making in minority in case of any political upcoming . In this splitting strategy they merged southern sub District Bhang Tar and Daifam in to eastern zone’s district Samdrup Dzonkhar. In this Zone, Tashigang , Monger , Hlunsi , Samdrup Dzongkhar and Pemagachhel included and made its head quarter in Yangfulla . Dorokha , Chegmari , Samchi and Phunsoling taken in Chhuka zone in northern Bhutan . Bumthathang , Tongsha and Semgang brought in Gaylegphung southern Zone . Dagana and Wangdifodrang transported in Chirang zone. This exercise became futile when they (chauvinists) show majority of Nepalis Bhutanese in almost all zones except eastern zone appeared even after doing this. In this regard , Bhutan’s past experience ( in Penlope system ) was very much bitter and unsuccessful to keep Bhutan under central yoke of one administration by promoting around 250 years internal fighting for power . May be, this is why, king’s coterie dismissed newly brought zonal system without official explanation or cancellation .
Next to this, worldwide wave of democracy blown from east Europe against dictators which has already in full blown in Barma ( Man Mar ) Afghanistan , Nepal and surrounding of Bhutan was the main concern of king Jigme Singe’s worry to save his despotism . Therefore, the hard core agents of him came under presser to do extreme works against Nepali community hence government agencies hatched harassing activities as provocation to ripe the situation to take drastic action in the name of violating law of the land, against Nepali community. For this, they chosen cadastral survey under which they made millions of acre land occupation illegal bypassing the previous laws under which such lands were 100 percent legal since centuries and its taxes have been paid under existing systems.
Secondly, Marriage ( which was allowed by 1958 citizenship act ) with foreign girl/boy made instrument and declare illegal if one of the couple (specially woman)is found non-Bhutanese followed by the children burn from such parents made foreigner in their own birth place . Also, including such family and other legal citizens who do not have 1958’s land tax receipt in hand in own name categorized under “F” one to “F” seven. Theses “F series categories” were addition in resent census enumeration done under Profoma “A” for Drukpa Bhutanese and Performa “B” for Nepali Bhutanese.
Thirdly, the greenbelt concept had implemented and one km land from Indian border to ward Bhutan (under which 70 percent of southern Bhutan was effected) declared as government land without any land reimbursement and appropriate compensation to the dwellers where around 50% of population was residing since centuries.
These provocations were unbearable and in any means were not suitable against any citizens by a genuine government so people of southern Bhutan including high ranking officers in government service were came to conclude to appealed the king through established channel of Royal advisory council by a patriotic appeal humbly seeking king’s real justice through Shree Tek Nath Rizal, the Royal advisory councilor of Southern Bhutan. The historic appeal is here under for readers’ judgment and reference because king’s government branded it as subversive activity and punished the main appealers:
His majesty, The king Of Bhutan, Tashichhodzong , Thimpu
May it please your majesty?
As your loyal subjects and having had the proud privilege of serving your majesty in the Royal advisory council as the representatives of southern Bhutan, we beg to submit this petition on the issue of paramount significance for the peace and progress of the nation. Most humbly, we submit that the issue needs the most careful and urgent consideration of the royal government. We would be failing “ be believe , both your majesty and the people of Bhutan if we did not bring this matter before your majesty .
2. Some alarming reports have reach us regarding the census exercise currently underway in the southern Dzongkhag . According to the report, we understand that:
2.1 The census teams are questioning the people with undue threats and classifying them into various categories.
2.2The teams are demanding that people produce evidence of their having settled in the country before 1958, even going to such extent of asking old people with children and grandchildren born in Bhutan to provide evidences of their arrival in Bhutan , or else be declared non- nationals .
2.3 In many instances, citizenship Identity card already issued have been confiscated or withdrawn.
2.4 Gups and Chimmi formerly considered knowledgeable and authoritative source in census matter are not being taken into confidence and are not permitted to testify the credentials of their village people. Some of them even been reprimanded for suggesting at DYT meetings more rational ways for conducting the census.
2.5 illiterate and simple village people are being coerced into signing documents, the contents of which are not known to them. This has intimidate and instilled fear in people.
3 On receipt of these reports, we took the liverty of enquiring about this matter with the department of immigration and census. We were informed by the secretary of department that this was a routine population exercise. Notwithstanding this explanation which was conveyed to the people, there are still misgivings because the method employed by the census team believe this statement. We, therefore, beg to submit that perhaps the census team have overstepped their mandate. This has resulted in panic and confusion among the people. This is disserving the peace and tranquility that has reign in the heart of your majesty’s royal subjects. Fostered by the enlightened policies of the government. This policy was clearly reflected in your majesty’s statement at Gaylegphu during the national celebration in 1978 that the settled in southern Bhutan are the true citizens and cannot be considered or treated otherwise. The renewed confidence and national pride generated by your majesty’s benign policy is, being undermined by the current exercise.
4. There are widespread feelings among the people that actions of the census Team in randomly categorizing people and affecting the status of many citizens are just on contravene the assurance of your majesty. It is the humble submission of the people that:
4.1The classification of the people as nationals, non-nationals and people without status are based on complete documentation and hearsay. The cavalier manner in which the exercise being carried out does not conformed to the seriousness of the issue at hand and hand is an affront to the dignity of the people and denial of their inherent right as citizens of this Kingdome.
4.2 classifications are based on narrow and literal interpretation of the Citizenship Act . This has resulted on the deprivations of national status of a large segment of the population of southern Bhutan, particularly children borne to the Bhutanese fathers before 1985, the retrospective application of the provision of this act makes stateless even those loyal subjects who have been serving the royal government.
4.3 The people are concerned that no distinction is made between non-national spouses and the applicants for citizenship. In some cases, the teams and local government officials have even informed individual concerned that the children and the spouses would be deported. This has been a source of great distress and is shaking the very foundation of the family and society. Due to social barriers, inter community marriage were seldom practiced. Even among the southern Bhutanese enter-state marriage have been rare owning to costume and traditions. These circumstances could with communication difficulties, compelled many southern Bhutanese to seek spouses outside the country. Your majesty may be aware that according to the costume of southern Bhutan the wife become a part of the husband’s family and for all purposes her link with her family are served after marriage. With the ongoing exercise, many families are now being torn between the loyalty to the country and their love and responsibility for the family.
4.4 The people are concerned that, even as the census is underway, the order has been issued forbidding Bhutanse citizens married to non-national to stand for election to the national assembly. This order penalizes and deprives them of their participation in the national forum. It is also the feeling that the order undermines the confidence of the people in this august body.
4.5 The manner in which the census teams were fielded and the disregard of the authority of the gups and chimies have led the people that it is not a routine exercise as it is made out to be . Unfortunately, this has been reinforced by the fact in a manner of such great significans even the representatives of the people from southern Bhutan in the royal advisory council were not consulted.
4.6 The historical factors which has resulted in the settlement of the southern Bhutanese community in the kingdome ,and the evolutionary process through which indissoluble link have been created between the people and the land , only emphasizes the important of the issue of the nationality and the status . The right of the property and the privileges vested in the people over the years. And corresponding duty to the country through the payment of taxes, contribution of labors and other services to nation, underscore the nexus between the country and the people of southern Bhutan. The manner in which the current census is being implemented appears to be questioning these very bonds.
5. The connection between the whole gamuts of concern, which are now pressing for attention, we cannot help but recall that it was the very initiative of the people of southern Bhutan, urged by their desire for the security and the stability of the country, that the process of the review of the citizenship act 1977 was started. This is ample proof that the people fully share the concern of the government of stem the possible settlement of illegal immigrants in southern Bhutan. The primary responsibility for the control of unauthorized immigration, has, however vested with government. At this juncture, to view the people with suspicion and to blame them for illegally colluding with the immigrants to secret them into the country is unfair and unjust. We cannot also fail to recollect the various occasions when your majesty so graciously assured the people of southern Bhutan that their interest and welfare would be fully protected in implementing laws and policies in the kingdome . it was in this context the representatives of southern Bhutan in the assembly raised the matter of revision of some of the provision of the citizenship act 1977 to accommodate the concerns of the people of southern Bhutan . However, owning to perhaps the diminutive voice of the southern members in the national assembly, the 1985 citizenship act was passed. Much to dismay of the people in southern Bhutan, this citizenship act echoed their worked fear by surpassing even the provisions of the former acts in is stringency, particularly for the people of southern Bhutan. This is not to suggest that the law is discriminatory or the based on racial and ethnic ground. However the fact that the trust of the legislation is felt mainly by people of southern Bhutan has given rise to speculation that a bias id implicit in the laws, though unintentional. This is causing much consternation among the people.
6. In this difficult circumstances, the people of southern Bhutan most humbly beg your majesty for protection and relief. We have always served your majesty’s Royal dynastic and the Kingdome with unswerving faith, unfaltering loyalty and the total dedication, and it is our fervent desire to continue to do so in the future. We pray in our distress that your may be pleased to command that:
6.1 the retrospective effect of the 1985 citizenship act, where by 31st December 1985 is fixed as the cut-of date, be emendated so that the cut of date is 10th june 1985 ,the date of the act coming into forced .
6.2The provision of the 1985 citizenship Act be amended so that children borne of any Bhtanese citizen automatically acquire Bhutanese citizenship.
6.3 The provisions of the citizenship Act 1985 be ammendate to provide privileged procedures for non-nationl spouses of Bhutanese citizens to acquire citizenship within the shortest possible time.
7We have taken the liberty of bringing this issues before your majesty for most compassioned consideration. We have done so in the conviction that your majesty is the sole dispenser of our destiny it is in your wish that the fate and future of the people of southern Bhutan depends. May we express our deepest gratitude to your majesty that we have never had an occasion to even feel the slightest disappointments in our lives from the wish dome of your majesty’s decisions? T this critical times, when our very foundations in this Kingdome are jeopardized by the magnitude of the problems confronting the people of southern Bhutan, we have turned to your majesty with full faith that our prayers will received the most gracious favor.
We humbly remain,
Your majesty’s most obedient servants.
( Tek Nath Rizal ) B. P Bhandari
Councilors Later, when
thimpu 09, April 1988
Expecting something justice from King Jigme Singe was something naïve as imagined in
the appeal because he was already on the way in his well calculated action to
be taken against Nepali Bhutanese’s eviction. He has full confident at that
time for not getting any intervention or
trouble from India and Indian journalist because without his permeation no
person from the world was able to enter in Bhutan except top ranking
personality from government of India .
Also, from inside no one can write or say anything related to king or government.
If happened such works it has ruthlessly treated as an act of anti-national
according to existing tsa- wa- sum (chapter 17 of existing constitution)
through which Dasho Teknath was dragged from termination within the tenor of
councilor of Southeern Bhutan .
Thus, his ( King’s 0 plan to reduce Nepali population was implemented to
slice it from the size of existing 43% to below 25% as
he and his father was showing this figure knowingly 25-32% to reduce it . To do such work in appropriate time , these two kings ( JInge Dorjee and Jigne Singe
) have been projecting concocted population of the country through
various international stages including UNO, ADB, WORLD
BANK , SAARK and non-align movements and other forum where Bhutan has its membership . in such projection King’s government always used to show Gnalung population ( people of Haa , Paro, Punaka , Wangdi ,
Gasa , Chukka , Thimpu , Tongsa and Bumthang ) high by repeating same figure in northern Bhutan and Tongsa and Bumthang region which ( including both ) is still ( after eviction of 19% Nepali Bhutanese
population ) in a line of third
majority group in the country in spite
of including Thimpu’s ( where people
of entire districts have been residing
as a central employees or businessmen of
the nation ) population northern
Bhutan’s figure .
According to king’s pre-set plan , The appealer Dasho Tek Nath Rizal was arrested after 55days of appeal submission to the king while he was buying his daily needs at Tashi commercial complex in Thimpu on June 4, 1988. He was immediately taken to Dadimakha police station and kept for detention without providing any conversation with family and friends, clothing, food and water in whole period . After three days of confinement at police head quarter, deputy home minister Dago Stiring arrived with a readymade agreement paper in which Councilor Rizal was force to sign without questioning. He was not allowed to use other approaches such as of seeking justice from the king using the capacity of councilor as prescribed in the role , duty and privileges written in constitution as projected in the following king’s termination order which itself is an explanatory if someone compare and analyze deeply with the above projected appeal and here under projected king’s order : .
“ The Royal Advisory Council is a vital organ established to act as a mediating body linking the the Royal Government and the people of Bhutan in the implementation of the policy of the Royal government . The council is to make the people aware of the plans and policies of the government, explain and decimate information and educate those enshrined in the acts, laws and the policies of the Royal government time to time. In the events of the government’s wrong planning that are detrimental to the people and the country, council shall be responsible to brief and advice the government for corrective measures and ensure synchronization of the government to people relationship . Therefore, royal advisory councilors are placed at the second grade and placed in the category of senior officers of the civil service. Above all , the king has place complete trust and faith in the council granting complete autonomy to have direct access to so as to enable them to express remedial recommendation to the king . However, despite comfort and this advantages, Lhostampa councilor Tek Nath Rizal has in spite of serving in the interest of Sta-wa –Sum, created misunderstanding by misinforming the government as a repercussion of the ongoing census program .he has also misinformed the government officers and the lhotsampa peoples of the government‘s intention of the confiscating the landed properties following the cadastral survey and the census program. Conscious of the fact that the government never had any ill motives against any community, his prime objectives of the subversive activities has been a conspiracy to create an unending political upheaval in the Kingdome. Therefore the willful treacherous act that demonstrated breach of the trust as against the aims and objective of the Royal advisory council which is in serious contravention to the law of the land, Mr Tek nath Rizal is thus, terminated frome the position of royal Advisory Councilor from this day.
Issued on 18 day of the forth month of earth dragon year.
King of Bhutan.
After viewing, comparing and
analyzing of southern Bhutan grabbing
and evicting project by the King’s
government now the turn is to review the work of high court[HA1] because it is necessary to examine how justices are
passed for which I am reproducing the letter issued by Deputy Home minister and witness by two judges of high court is here under :
Mr Tek Nath Rizal , royal advisory councilor from the Stirang valley of Lhostam , in spite of serving the Sa- Wa – sum with dedication has miss- informed the king on the negative repercussion of the census program and submitted a report on the possibility of lhostampa peoples’ revulsion against sa – wa- sum . He miss informed the government officers and people and warned them of the royal government’s scheme to review the land holding, conduct census recording and after confiscation evict the people from the country. By this statement, he confessed of having misinformed the people with fabricated story thus fall, in presence of the following signatories who had laid their hands in the witness to the statement. In view of above, Mr Tek Nath Rizal is terminated from the service and he has under taken henceforth to abide by the conditions and remain in isolation by not taking part in the assembly of three people at any place .
Violation of this agreement, signed here in, shall be considered as act of treason and liable to punishment. This verdict issued on third day of the forth month of earth dragon year and the contents having been interpreted in lhostam language and having thoroughly understood lay the hand of Teknath Rizal in agreement to abide by the conditions enshrined herein with complete commitment and allegiance .
Signed on Stamp signed
Dy Home minister
In witness there of:
1 High court Judge: D. N. katwal … sd on stamp.
2High court Judge; Lok bahadur gurung Sd on stamp .
In the conclusion of this article , I want to emphasize that it is a well calculated project of ethnic cleansing to grab the land and properties of southern Bhutanese and evict them from their motherland without doing any big massacre to avoid the international criticism and action . This project’s strategy was designed by third king, implemented by fourth king and have been nurturing and fostering by fifth king as stated in the above mentioned true story to made Nepali Bhutanese less or converted Nepali as Drukpa in Bhutan in some years . Unfortunately, this injustice is burring in the grab yard of so called democracy which is designed by king himself to whirl it to convert international opinion. As a result ,real cause of Bhutnan’s democracy and establishing of human right is dying immaturely without getting real justice due to lack interest of big power in the region and world against racial discrimination In Bhutan. Also, it is disappearing due to lack support of international agencies, media along with poor consciousness of Bhutanese Nepalese inside and outside whether they are educated and illiterate.