My ancestors

If I not describe existing old situation and where about of my ancestors in Bhutan than the work of drawing an old picture of Bhutanese villages and situations , prior to ethnic cleansing , will be imperfect and incomplete . So, I want to say something about my ancestors and their where about in Bhutan by this piece of writing . Also , I want to request to our brilliants, capable and talents Bhutanese fellow who could make such work of their neighborhoods in Bhutan describing everything surrounding of their Villages where from their parents/ elders were evicted . Aim of doing such work is to make the task as reference paper for future generation who need a research of old name and where about of their ancestors because King Jigme Singe and his agents are still replacing our old Nepali name of villages from the southern Bhutan , in Dzonkha under ethnic cleansing policy .

My father, let Shree Govinda Adhikari was burn at Bada Block , Sipsu in Bhutan in A.D 1912 . My grandfather Shree Nandalal Adhikari came from Khunga, Pach Thar, Nepal . He migrated from Panchthar to Ranitar , Ilam, eastern Nepal . Thereafter he proceeded to Bada Bhutan, in about AD 1895/96. He died when my father was only 5 years old. During the time of my grandfather’s proceeding there was no central Government system in Bhutan . The administration used to run in ad hoc basis in the name of Sabdung Nawang Namgyal by the Deshi . He was nominated as regent of the Sabdung . Deshi’s area of governance was very marginal . He used to work as puppet of the groups who were involved in nomination to him. The nominating group used to comprised by Penlops ( provincial heads ) , Dzongpons ( fort’s head ) , and few big lamas ( monks ) from famous Guempas ( Temples ) . Amid in group, Ugen Wangchuk , the then Tongsha penplop , was more powerful and was forerunner for central leadership for future unified Bhutan . Nevertheless, he had been facing tremendous challenges of how to establish a unified Bhutan? How to create tax payers? How to raise the workable revenue from tenant ( Raiyat) ? How to increase the human resources for undergoing a new country? He needs to get international help and recognition too. He needs to bring all provinces and Dzongs under one umbrella because the Penlops and Dzongpons were independent to do everything in their provinces . They could allow, invite and terminate anything along with new settlers in their respective territories. Eventually , challenges facing Ugen Wangchuk with the endorsement of Thimpu , Wangdi , and PUnakha Dzongpon promoted Ugen Dorjee as crises management head by giving him full authority to invite more ethnic Nepalis in addition to existing Nepali blocks under Garman State . The State was established in late 1870s and there were around 40-50 blocks under this State. Its head quarter was at Saureni and was named “Saureny Kothi”in present Samchi area .

Ugen Dorjee became hereditary( vassal ) head of southern Bhutan ( Lhostam ) under Ugen Wangchuk , the first King Of Bhutan . He started to call more Nepalis Under the leadership of block Mandals ( Head of the villages) . Interestingly, the block Mandal’s post also had made hereditary who could keep/bring more than fifty houses and were allowed to settled Nepali in southern territory . In addition to the responsibility of southern Bhutan’s administration Mr Dorjee became in charge of foreign affairs because he was very close to British empire in India and was head quartered at Kaling Pung . Not only that , he started to treat as hereditary second in command ( Chamberlin )under Ugen Wangchuk who was supposed to be the king of Bhutan within few years . Raja Dorgee proliferated more ethnic Nepali in Bhutan and started to clear felling the forest In Chirang , Dagana , Sarbhang, Hatisar ( present Gaylegphung ) . Also , he authorize Julindra pradhan to open Nyawaly areas by making “Nyawaly Kothi” as its administrative head quarter of present Samdrup Dzongkhar districts in the far east . He has made commissioner of southern Bhutan and was entrusted the responsibility of border maintaining and demarcating authority in between Bhutan and India from Bhutan side.

Ugen Dorjee was succeeded by his son, Sonam Tobge Dorjee( RaJa S. T Dorjee) and continued his father’s policies but facing tremendous problem at border . There was a saying about the border between India and Bhutan-------------“ a boulder pushed from hill top which rolled until it is a Bhutan , where it’s stopped that Is an India” . So it was urgent to protect the plain areas. Plains of Bhutan , were the remaining part of indo Bhutan war in A.D. 1865 and were very difficult to residing due to deep forest, too hot, humid climate and malaria prone along with a sanctuary of furious animals. To combat this challenge , Dorjees developed a two prong strategy and allowed the settlers at first in hills by opening Dorokha , Tala , Dagana , Chirang , Dovan , Maugaun , Gong , Galechu and Surey . later , people effected by house burnts , earthquakes , land slides, and people under “Tongya schemes ” ( a forest cleaning process ) and Sukumbasis ( who separated from nucleus family and become landless ) were brought in these plains . They were Kalikhola , Deorali , Nichula , Fipsu , Pingkhuwa , Hiley , Singi , Sarbhang Tar , Lareni , Pata Bari , Toribari , Bhur , Hatisar ( Gaylegphung ) , Thewar , Dana Bari , Lalai and Taklai , kanamakura , Bhang Tar , Samrang and Daifam . Settlers were levied British empire’s rupees ( because the Gnultrum was not in vogue ) : 21 , 18 , 14 , 10 as the Bhuri Khajana (house and plot holding tax ) for occupied largest to smallest land plots similar to hill areas and sukumbaris were charged rupees 7.50 per house . Likewise, cattle taxes on buffalo, cow, sheep and goat made payable. The Chudara ( who make wooden containers ) was under levy . Orange trees and its fruits, cardamom plant and its fruits brought under duty separately. Furthermore, in a year, it was compulsory to every household to work 70 days in a Dzong construction or road construction without pay and food . The rule was mandatory to every individual who has completed 17 years of his age in one house hold . The jharlagi ( free laboring to caring food and materials for palace and Dzong resident) was unavoidable on the call of village authorities . Next to this, they need to work in their local developmental activities according to their requirements with out any help from government.

The system forced my Grandma, Hari maya Adhikari to leave Bada because there were no other relatives to support her when my father was not in the home due to these compulsory government’s works . So she decided to migrate Chirang , Gopini where her brother Puspalal Dhakal had decided to go . Gopini also had not favorable to us because of heavy landslides in the area. Thereafter they moved toward Maougoan where I was born in June 27 1952 . Mao Gaun is a small but beautiful village. it is an important place for Shree Vaisnav Hindu , who follow Sree Vaisnav Sampradaya ( sect ) . The village is a first head quarter of this religious group in Bhutan. Here , Shree , 1008 Jagad Guru Kamala Nayana Charya along with his assistance Pandit krisna Prapana Pyakurel and Narayan Pyakurel had stayed several days for teaching and preaching the Shree Vaisnav doctrine when Vaisnav Guru entered in Bhutan , in about A.D. 1966-68. In this place, a temple, made in south Indian style , of Laxinarayan and a Samskrit Pathsala ( Samskrit school ) especially for Veda and Vedic teaching is established . The temple was constructed under the leadership and initiative of Shree, Shree, Basudeva Dhakal ( Acharya ) who is the sun of this place .

Unfortunately , Maogaun also did not become favorable to reside for my ancestor because of a great land slide occurred in A.D. 1954-55. By the land slide our almost land was washed away which force my father to move further toward Surey ( My Karma Bhumi ) I used to say it is a my Janma Bhumi ( birth place ) .

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